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We applaud the goals and execution of the target article, but note that individual differences do not receive much attention. This is a shortcoming because individual differences can play a vital role in theory testing. In our commentary, we describe programs of research of this type and also apply similar thinking to the mechanisms proposed in the target article.
Aurochs played a prominent role in mortuary and feasting practices during the Neolithic transition in south-west Asia, although evidence of these practices is diverse and regionally varied. This article considers a new concentration of aurochs bones from the southern Levantine Pre-Pottery Neolithic site of Kfar HaHoresh, situating it in a regional context through a survey of aurochs remains from other sites. Analysis shows a change in the regional pattern once animal domestication began from an emphasis on feasting to small-scale practices. These results reveal a widely shared practice of symbolic cattle use that persisted over a long period, but shifted with the beginning of animal management across the region.
To our knowledge, there are no universal screening tools for substance dependence that (1) were developed using a population-based sample, (2) estimate total risk briefly and inexpensively by incorporating a relatively small number of well-established risk factors, and (3) aggregate risk factors using a simple algorithm. We created a universal screening tool that incorporates these features to identify adolescents at risk for persistent substance dependence in adulthood.
Participants were members of a representative cohort of 1037 individuals born in Dunedin, New Zealand in 1972–1973 and followed prospectively to age 38 years, with 95% retention. We assessed a small set of childhood and adolescent risk factors: family history of substance dependence, childhood psychopathology (conduct disorder, depression), early exposure to substances, frequent substance use in adolescence, sex, and childhood socioeconomic status. We defined the outcome (persistent substance dependence in adulthood) as dependence on one or more of alcohol, tobacco, cannabis, or hard drugs at ⩾3 assessment ages: 21, 26, 32, and 38 years.
A cumulative risk index, a simple sum of nine childhood and adolescent risk factors, predicted persistent substance dependence in adulthood with considerable accuracy (AUC = 0.80).
A cumulative risk score can accurately predict which adolescents in the general population will develop persistent substance dependence in adulthood.
Precipitation of amorphous silica (SiO2) in geothermal power plants, although a common factor limiting the efficiency of geothermal energy production, is poorly understood and no universally applicable mitigation strategy to prevent or reduce precipitation is available. This is primarily due to the lack of understanding of the precipitation mechanism of amorphous silica in geothermal systems.
In the present study data are presented about microstructures and compositions of precipitates formed on scaling plates inserted at five different locations in the pipelines at the Hellisheiði power station (SW-Iceland). Precipitates on these plates formed over 6 to 8 weeks of immersion in hot (120 or 60ºC), fast-flowing and silica-supersaturated geothermal fluids (~800 ppm of SiO2). Although the composition of the precipitates is fairly homogeneous, with silica being the dominant component and Fe sulfides as a less common phase, the microstructures of the precipitates are highly variable and dependent on the location within the geothermal pipelines. The silica precipitates have grown through aggregation and precipitation of silica particles that precipitated homogeneously in the geothermal fluid. Five main factors were identified that may control the precipitation of silica: (1) temperature, (2) fluid composition, (3) fluid-flow regime, (4) distance along the flow path, and (5) immersion time.
On all scaling plates, a corrosion layer was found underlying the silica precipitates indicating that, once formed, the presence of a silica layer probably protects the steel pipe surface against further corrosion. Yet silica precipitates influence the flow of the geothermal fluids and therefore can limit the efficiency of geothermal power stations.
The histology of a femur of Plagiosuchus, a Middle Triassic temnospondyl amphibian, is described on the basis of two supplementary methods: classic thin sectioning and micro-CT scanning. In addition, the effectiveness of high-resolution micro-CT scanning for histological analysis is assessed. A classic, mid-shaft thin section of the femur was prepared, but prior to slicing two micro-CT scans were made. One of these has an image stack of a total of 1,024 images in the horizontal plane and a slice thickness of 87.8 μm, so that the entire bone could be captured, while the second was at mid-shaft region only, yet with a higher resolution of 28.3 μm and an image stack of 787 images in the horizontal plane. The classic thin section shows a very small medullary region which is surrounded by a layer of endosteal bone. The thick cortex is highly porous with numerous large, mainly longitudinal, vascular canals arranged in layers. In the deepest cortex woven bone occurs and primary osteons had locally started to form (incipient fibro-lamellar bone), which gradually passes into parallel-fibred bone and more lamellar bone close to the outer surface. Remains of a Kastschenko line were identified, enabling a reconstruction of the entire growth record. Five Lines of Arrested Growth (LAG) could be counted. The micro-CT scan enabled observations of the ontogenetic growth stages and calculation of growth rate on the basis of a single specimen. The micro-CT scan permitted a reconstruction of the ontogenetic development and the exact deposition rate per annum. Moreover, at higher resolution the micro-CT scan revealed data on micro-anatomical characters, such as porosity and skeletochronology (growth mark count). In conclusion, micro-CT scans do provide an alternative in cases where thin sectioning of the original bone is not possible.
Invasive parasites are of great global concern. Understanding the factors influencing the spread of invading pest species is a first step in developing effective countermeasures. Growing empirical evidence suggests that spread rates are essentially influenced by spatiotemporal dynamics of host–parasite interactions, yet approaches modelling spread rate have typically assumed static environmental conditions. We analysed invasion history of the deer ked (Lipoptena cervi) in Finland with a diffusion–reaction model, which assumed either the movement rate, the population growth rate, or both rates may depend on spatial and temporal distribution of moose (Alces alces), the main host of deer ked. We fitted the model to the data in a Bayesian framework, and used the Bayesian information criterion to show that accounting for the variation in local moose density improved the model's ability to describe the pattern of the invasion. The highest ranked model predicted higher movement rate and growth rate of deer ked with increasing moose density. Our results suggest that the historic increase in host density has facilitated the spread of the deer ked. Our approach illustrates how information about the ecology of an invasive species can be extracted from the spatial pattern of spread even with rather limited data.
A clinically compatible fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) system was developed. The system was applied to intraoperative in vivo imaging of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). The endoscopic FLIM prototype integrates a gated (down to 0.2 ns) intensifier imaging system and a fiber-bundle endoscope (0.5-mm-diameter, 10,000 fibers with a gradient index lens objective 0.5 NA, 4-mm field of view), which provides intraoperative access to the surgical field. Tissue autofluorescence was induced by a pulsed laser (337 nm, 700 ps pulse width) and collected in the 460 ± 25 nm spectral band. FLIM experiments were conducted at 26 anatomic sites in ten patients during head and neck cancer surgery. HNSCC exhibited a weaker florescence intensity (~50% less) when compared with healthy tissue and a shorter average lifetime (τHNSCC = 1.21 ± 0.04 ns) than the surrounding normal tissue (τN = 1.49 ± 0.06 ns). This work demonstrates the potential of FLIM for label-free head and neck tumor demarcation during intraoperative surgical procedures.
Comets provide a very different but well understood environment in which to search for DIBs. Observations of occultations by cometary comae have not detected DIBs, but none were very near the nucleus, where the column density of dust is highest. We report here unidentified emission bands, centered at λ4430, very near the nucleus of comet Hyakutake. These may be vaporized forms of grain carriers or fragments of large-molecule carriers. At least two different species appear to be present based on two different spatial distributions.
Precision optical astrometry of quasars and active galaxies can provide important insight into the spatial distribution and variability of emission in compact nuclei. SIM — the Space Interferometry Mission — will be the first optical interferometer capable of precision astrometry on quasars. Although it is not expected to resolve the emission, it will be very sensitive to astrometric shifts, for objects as faint as R magnitude 20. In its wide-angle mode, SIM will yield 4 microarcsecond absolute positions, and proper motions to about 2 microarcsecond/yr. A variety of AGN phenomena are expected to be visible to SIM on these scales, including time and spectral dependence in position offsets between accretion disk and jet emission. SIM should be able to answer the following questions. Does the most compact optical emission from an AGN come from an accretion disk or from a relativistic jet? Do the relative positions of the radio core and optical photocentre of quasars used for the reference frame tie change on the timescales of their photometric variability? Do the cores of galaxies harbour binary supermassive black holes remaining from galaxy mergers? In this paper we briefly describe the operation of SIM and the quasar measurements it will make. We estimate the size of the astrometric signatures which may be expected, and we discuss prospects for using astrometry as a fundamental tool for understanding quasar nuclei.
PECVD growth of the microcrystalline silicon junction on a highly textured amorphous top cell often leads to defective absorber layers and finally to low quality bottom cell. This paper reports on the current status of using an innovative smoothening/reflective layer (SRL) as alternative intermediate reflector between top and bottom cell of a Micromorph tandem device deposited on as-grown highly textured LPCVD ZnO layer. Manufacturing of the SRL layer is realized by “liquid phase” deposition technologies. Optical and electrical properties, smoothening effect and photoelectrical results of Micromorph tandem devices are discussed. The implementation of our novel SRL results in the growth of a crack-free bottom cell and to an efficient current transfer from the bottom to the top cell.
Osteohistological characteristics of the large temnospondyl amphibian Metoposaurus diagnosticus from the Upper Triassic of Poland (Krasiejów locality) were determined using vertebral intercentra thin-sections from different regions and growth stages. The intercentra showed a trabecular structure in both the endochondral and periosteal domains. Endochondral ossification developed first, and the primary bone occurs near the periphery with a higher degree of remodelling in the centre. Periosteal bone deposition begins later; first on the ventral side, continuing laterally and finally onto the dorsal side. Periosteal growth rate was initially very rapid, and then subsequently decreased in rate. In all sections, numerous remains of calcified cartilage are visible, which may indicate a juvenile, paedomorphic or plesiomorphic character. The four histologic ontogenetic stages (HOS) of sampled vertebrae were determined based on growth marks. Most of the sampled bones belong to juvenile individuals (HOS 1 to 3), apart from one atlas and the largest anterior dorsal intercentrum, which represent the oldest described stage (HOS 4). Sharpey's fibres are preserved in ventro-lateral cortical regions, around parapophyses and on the posterior side of the neural arch.
We present parsec-scale interferometric maps of HCN(1-0) and HCO+(1-0) emission from dense gas in the star-forming region 30Dor10, obtained using the Australia Telescope Compact Array. This extreme star-forming region, located in the Large Magellanic Cloud, is characterized by a very intense ionizing radiation field and sub-solar metallicity, both of which are expected to affect molecular cloud structure. We detect 13 clumps of dense molecular gas, some of which are aligned in a filamentary structure. Our analysis of the clump properties shows that they have similar mass but slightly wider linewidths than clumps detected in other LMC star-forming regions.
Phosphorylation of ribose sugars is central to life in its present form as well as throughout evolution. This reaction chemically activates sugars and hence plays a major role in the transmission of information and energy conservation. Nature has chosen adenosine-5ʹ-triphosphate (ATP) as a widely used energy source in a variety of cellular energy-converting processes. A few but important examples are the anabolic and catabolic biochemical pathways, solute and ion transport (osmotic work), and mechanical work (e.g., muscle contraction or cell motility).
ATP was first described by the German chemist Karl Lohmann in 1929, who isolated it from muscle and liver extracts (Langen and Hucho, 2008). The first chemical synthesis of ATP outside a living cell was performed by the Nobel Laureate Lord Alexander Robertus Todd in 1949 (Baddiley et al., 1949). Already in 1935, the Russian scientist Vladimir Engelhardt noted that muscle contraction requires ATP. Two years later, the Danish scientist Herman Moritz Kalckar established that ATP synthesis is linked with cell respiration and that ATP represents the final product of the catabolic reaction. In the years 1939–1941, Fritz Lipmann showed that ATP is the main bearer of chemical energy in the cell. He coined the phrase “energy-rich phosphate bonds” (Lipmann, 1941). The reason for this expression lies in the structure of ATP.
The current study determined whether the pre-implantation conceptus modified endometrial fatty acid concentrations. Oestrus was synchronized in 14 mature lactating cows and embryos were transferred on day 7. Cows were slaughtered 10 d later, with each uterine horn flushed, the pre-implantation conceptus located, and inter-caruncular endometrial tissue collected from the gravid horn (containing the pre-implantation conceptus) and non-gravid horn. Endometrial fatty acid concentrations in the gravid and non-gravid horn were compared using linear models in restricted maxiumum likelihood. Investigations of the correlations among selected fatty acids and trophoblast weight or uterine fluid interferon-tau (IFN-τ) concentrations were also undertaken. The presence of the pre-implantation conceptus had relatively minor effects on endometrial fatty acid concentrations, but the ω6:ω3 ratio was greater and concentrations of stearic and oleic acid were slightly increased in the gravid horn. In the gravid horn, a negative linear relationship between the concentration of arachidonic acid and conceptus weight and IFN-τ concentration in the uterine luminal fluid were observed. In contrast, there was a positive relationship between concentrations of dihomo-γ-linolenic acid in the non-gravid horn and conceptus weight. In conclusion, the presence of the pre-implantation conceptus appears to modulate endometrial fatty acids, as indicated by the differences in endometrial fatty acid concentrations in the gravid and non-gravid uterine horns. The physiological implication of these local effects of the pre-implantation conceptus, on reproductive success requires further investigation.