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To test the functional implications of impaired white matter (WM) connectivity among patients with schizophrenia and their relatives, we examined the heritability of fractional anisotropy (FA) measured on diffusion tensor imaging data acquired in Pittsburgh and Philadelphia, and its association with cognitive performance in a unique sample of 175 multigenerational non-psychotic relatives of 23 multiplex schizophrenia families and 240 unrelated controls (total = 438).
We examined polygenic inheritance (h2r) of FA in 24 WM tracts bilaterally, and also pleiotropy to test whether heritability of FA in multiple WM tracts is secondary to genetic correlation among tracts using the Sequential Oligogenic Linkage Analysis Routines. Partial correlation tests examined the correlation of FA with performance on eight cognitive domains on the Penn Computerized Neurocognitive Battery, controlling for age, sex, site and mother's education, followed by multiple comparison corrections.
Significant total additive genetic heritability of FA was observed in all three-categories of WM tracts (association, commissural and projection fibers), in total 33/48 tracts. There were significant genetic correlations in 40% of tracts. Diagnostic group main effects were observed only in tracts with significantly heritable FA. Correlation of FA with neurocognitive impairments was observed mainly in heritable tracts.
Our data show significant heritability of all three-types of tracts among relatives of schizophrenia. Significant heritability of FA of multiple tracts was not entirely due to genetic correlations among the tracts. Diagnostic group main effect and correlation with neurocognitive performance were mainly restricted to tracts with heritable FA suggesting shared genetic effects on these traits.
The radiocarbon (14C) calibration curve so far contains annually resolved data only for a short period of time. With accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) matching the precision of decay counting, it is now possible to efficiently produce large datasets of annual resolution for calibration purposes using small amounts of wood. The radiocarbon intercomparison on single-year tree-ring samples presented here is the first to investigate specifically possible offsets between AMS laboratories at high precision. The results show that AMS laboratories are capable of measuring samples of Holocene age with an accuracy and precision that is comparable or even goes beyond what is possible with decay counting, even though they require a thousand times less wood. It also shows that not all AMS laboratories always produce results that are consistent with their stated uncertainties. The long-term benefits of studies of this kind are more accurate radiocarbon measurements with, in the future, better quantified uncertainties.
Short-term peripheral venous catheter–related bloodstream infection (PVCR-BSI) rates have not been systematically studied in resource-limited countries, and data on their incidence by number of device days are not available.
Prospective, surveillance study on PVCR-BSI conducted from September 1, 2013, to May 31, 2019, in 727 intensive care units (ICUs), by members of the International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium (INICC), from 268 hospitals in 141 cities of 42 countries of Africa, the Americas, Eastern Mediterranean, Europe, South East Asia, and Western Pacific regions. For this research, we applied definition and criteria of the CDC NHSN, methodology of the INICC, and software named INICC Surveillance Online System.
We followed 149,609 ICU patients for 731,135 bed days and 743,508 short-term peripheral venous catheter (PVC) days. We identified 1,789 PVCR-BSIs for an overall rate of 2.41 per 1,000 PVC days. Mortality in patients with PVC but without PVCR-BSI was 6.67%, and mortality was 18% in patients with PVC and PVCR-BSI. The length of stay of patients with PVC but without PVCR-BSI was 4.83 days, and the length of stay was 9.85 days in patients with PVC and PVCR-BSI. Among these infections, the microorganism profile showed 58% gram-negative bacteria: Escherichia coli (16%), Klebsiella spp (11%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (6%), Enterobacter spp (4%), and others (20%) including Serratia marcescens. Staphylococcus aureus were the predominant gram-positive bacteria (12%).
PVCR-BSI rates in INICC ICUs were much higher than rates published from industrialized countries. Infection prevention programs must be implemented to reduce the incidence of PVCR-BSIs in resource-limited countries.
Norwood palliation for patients with single ventricle heart disease is associated with a significant risk for acute kidney injury, which portends a worse prognosis. We sought to investigate the impact of hybrid stage I palliation (Hybrid) on acute kidney injury risk.
This study is a single-centre prospective case–control study of seven consecutive neonates with single ventricle undergoing Hybrid palliation. Levels of serum creatinine and four novel urinary biomarkers, namely neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin, interleukin-18, liver fatty acid-binding protein, and kidney injury molecule-1, were obtained before and after palliation. Acute kidney injury was defined as a ⩾50% increase in serum creatinine within 48 hours after the procedure. Data were compared with a contemporary cohort of 12 neonates with single ventricle who underwent Norwood palliation.
Patients who underwent Hybrid were more likely to be high-risk candidates (86 versus 25%, p=0.01) compared with those who underwent Norwood. Despite similar preoperative serum creatinine levels, there was a trend towards higher levels of postoperative peak serum creatinine (0.7 [0.63, 0.94] versus 0.56 [0.47, 0.74], p=0.06) and rate of acute kidney injury (67 versus 29%, p=0.17) in the Norwood cohort. Preoperative neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (58.4 [11, 86.3] versus 6.3 [5, 16.2], p=0.07) and interleukin-18 (30.6 [9.6, 167.2] versus 6.3 [6.3, 16.4], p=0.03) levels were higher in the Hybrid cohort. Nevertheless, longitudinal mixed-effect models demonstrated Hybrid palliation to be a protective factor against increased postoperative levels of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (estimate −1.8 [−3.0, −9.0], p<0.001) and liver fatty acid-binding protein (−49.3 [−89.7, −8.8], p=0.018).
In this single-centre case–control study, postoperative acute kidney injury risk did not differ significantly by single ventricle stage I treatment strategy; however, postoperative elevation in novel urinary biomarkers, consistent with subclinical kidney injury, was encountered in the Norwood cohort but not in the Hybrid cohort.
Liability to substance use disorder (SUD) is largely nonspecific to particular drugs and is related to behavior dysregulation, including reduced cognitive control. Recent data suggest that cognitive mechanisms may be influenced by exposure to neurotropic infections, such as human herpesviruses. In this study, serological evidence of exposure to human herpesvirus Herpes simplex virus Type 1 (HSV-1), cytomegalovirus (CMV), and Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) as well as Toxoplasma gondii was determined in childhood (age ~11 years) in 395 sons and 174 daughters of fathers with or without SUD. Its relationships with a cognitive characteristic (IQ) in childhood and with risk for SUD in adulthood were examined using correlation, regression, survival, and path analyses. Exposure to HSV-1, EBV, and T. gondii in males and females, and CMV in males, was associated with lower IQ. Independent of that relationship, EBV in females and possibly in males, and CMV and possibly HSV-1 in females were associated with elevated risk for SUD. Therefore, childhood neurotropic infections may influence cognitive development and risk for behavior disorders such as SUD. The results may point to new avenues for alleviating cognitive impairment and SUD risk.
Castor is an industrially important oilseed crop. Vascular wilt caused by the soil borne fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ricini is a serious disease of castor. Use of resistant cultivars is the only viable option for management of wilt disease problem in castor production. Excellent sources of resistance to wilt have been found in castor germplasm. In this study, a set of four castor inbred lines (48–1, CI-1, AP42 and AP48) was characterized for inheritance of resistance to wilt by studying segregating populations generated by crossing these inbred lines with eight different susceptible genotypes. An artificial screening method (sick pot) with a new scoring system (days to wilt) was used for evaluation of plant progenies for reaction to the pathogen infection. The reaction of F1s indicated that the nature of resistance in 48–1, CI-1 and AP48 is recessive whereas it was dominant in AP42. Inheritance results from eight F2 populations showed that resistance to wilt is conferred by a single locus in one population and at least two loci, which interact in complementary way, in other seven populations. Different modes of inheritance were also observed when the same resistant source was crossed with different susceptible parents, indicating the possible role of genetic backgrounds in determining resistance. Overall, the results suggested that Mendelian resistance to wilt is predominant in the castor genotypes, which can be exploited for breeding cultivars. Particularly, AP42 with dominant nature of resistance will be of great interest to hybrid breeding.
the maternally inherited MTTL1 A3243G mutation in the mitochondrial genome causes MelaS (Mitochondrial encephalopathy lactic acidosis with Stroke-like episodes), a condition that is multisystemic but affects primarily the nervous system. Significant intra-familial variation in phenotype and severity of disease is well recognized.
retrospective and ongoing study of an extended family carrying the MTTL1 A3243G mutation with multiple symptomatic individuals. tissue heteroplasmy is reviewed based on the clinical presentations, imaging studies, laboratory findings in affected individuals and pathological material obtained at autopsy in two of the family members.
there were seven affected individuals out of thirteen members in this three generation family who each carried the MTTL1 A3243G mutation. the clinical presentations were varied with symptoms ranging from hearing loss, migraines, dementia, seizures, diabetes, visual manifestations, and stroke like episodes. three of the family members are deceased from MelaS or to complications related to MelaS.
the results of the clinical, pathological and radiological findings in this family provide strong support to the current concepts of maternal inheritance, tissue heteroplasmy and molecular pathogenesis in MelaS. neurologists (both adult and paediatric) are the most likely to encounter patients with MelaS in their practice. genetic counselling is complex in view of maternal inheritance and heteroplasmy. newer therapeutic options such as arginine are being used for acute and preventative management of stroke like episodes.
Herpes virus infections can cause cognitive impairment during and after acute encephalitis. Although chronic, latent/persistent infection is considered to be relatively benign, some studies have documented cognitive impairment in exposed persons that is untraceable to encephalitis. These studies were conducted among schizophrenia (SZ) patients or older community dwellers, among whom it is difficult to control for the effects of co-morbid illness and medications. To determine whether the associations can be generalized to other groups, we examined a large sample of younger control individuals, SZ patients and their non-psychotic relatives (n=1852).
Using multivariate models, cognitive performance was evaluated in relation to exposures to herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) and cytomegalovirus (CMV), controlling for familial and diagnostic status and sociodemographic variables, including occupation and educational status. Composite cognitive measures were derived from nine cognitive domains using principal components of heritability (PCH). Exposure was indexed by antibodies to viral antigens.
PCH1, the most heritable component of cognitive performance, declines with exposure to CMV or HSV-1 regardless of case/relative/control group status (p = 1.09 × 10−5 and 0.01 respectively), with stronger association with exposure to multiple herpes viruses (β = −0.25, p = 7.28 × 10−10). There were no significant interactions between exposure and group status.
Latent/persistent herpes virus infections can be associated with cognitive impairments regardless of other health status.
The creeping flow of an incompressible viscous liquid past a porous approximately spherical shell is considered. The flow in the free fluid region outside the shell and in the cavity region of the shell is governed by the Navier–Stokes equations. The flow within the porous annular region of the shell is governed by Brinkman’s model. The boundary conditions used at the interface are continuity of the velocity, continuity of the pressure and Ochoa-Tapia and Whitaker’s stress jump condition. An exact solution for the problem and an expression for the drag on the porous approximately spherical shell are obtained. The drag is evaluated numerically for several values of the parameters governing the flow.
Buffaloes are the major production animals in most of the South Asian countries including Nepal. The buffalo, however, is a sluggish breeder and is beset with various constraints which adversely influence its fertility; such as, problems of silent heat coupled with poor expression of oestrus, irregular oestrus cycles, anoestrus, prolonged days open and low conception rates (Madan and Prakash, 2006). Among them, anoestrus is the most commonly encountered condition leading to reproductive failure and culling in buffaloes. However, the ovarian status of such buffaloes is poorly understood. The present study aims to investigate the ovarian status, uterine pathology and physical condition of anoestrus and culled buffaloes in Chitwan, Nepal. The buffaloes in Nepal are generally culled if they fail to conceive for long time or the production is seized.
Effect of graded levels of high-glucosinolate mustard (Brassica juncea) meal as substitute of soya-bean meal (SBM) in broiler rabbit diets was studied. Forty weaning rabbits of Soviet Chinchilla and White Giant breed were randomly allocated to one of four experimental diets containing mustard meal (MM) 0, 80, 160 and 245 g/kg. The experiment lasted for 8 weeks. MM had 54.8 mg total glucosinolates (TGLSs) per g dry matter (DM). Diets had TGLS 3.8, 8.4 and 11.98 mg/g DM in 80, 160 and 245 g MM diets, respectively. MM-incorporated diets had higher digestible and linearly (P < 0.01) higher metabolisable energy (ME) content. However, the effect on total tract apparent digestibility of DM, and crude protein was quadratic. Average daily gain (ADG) reduced (P < 0.05) linearly with increasing MM levels in diet, still 80 and 160 g MM diets had similar ADG compared to that of SBM diet. Caecum weight reduced linearly (P < 0.05) with increasing MM levels in diet. The pH of caecal content ranged between 5.85 and 6.19, total N between 1.19 and 1.48 (g per 100 g) and total volatile fatty acids between 4.7 and 5.8 mmol per 100 g, and they were not statistically different. NH3-N ranged between 31.2 and 39.0 mg per 100 ml, and reduced linearly (P < 0.05) while trichloroacetic acid-precipitable nitrogen increased linearly (P < 0.01, ranged between 114 and 247 mg per 100 ml) with increasing MM levels in diet. Blood haemoglobin, packed cell volume and lymphocytes were higher (quadratic effects, P < 0.05) on 245 MM diet, whereas white blood cell count reduced linearly (P < 0.01). Serum aspartate aminotransferase increased linearly (P < 0.01) while alanine aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase activity, protein, erythrocytes sedimentation rate and red blood cell counts were not affected by MM. Serum Cu, Na and K content increased linearly (P < 0.05) with increasing MM levels. Liver Cu concentration showed quadratic (P < 0.05) increase. Rabbits tolerated 8.4 mg TGLS per g diet (160 g MM per kg) during active growth without any apparent effect on health and growth. It is concluded that MM can replace up to 66% SBM protein in rabbit feeding, whereas complete replacement of SBM with MM reduced feed intake and ADG by 23% and 13%, respectively. Further studies are required to confirm these inclusion levels and glucosinolate tolerance of rabbits.
Dielectric, impedance, modulus and conductivity
studies were performed over temperature 35 °C–600 °C and
frequency 45 Hz–5 MHz range on the Lead Potassium Lithium Niobate
(Pb4.0K1.0Li1.0Nb10O30, PKLN) ceramics. These
studies established the conduction ion motion and polarization mechanism in
the material. The dispersive dielectric loss at high temperature reveals the
ionic conductivity. From frequency variation of εl response
the pre-factor A(T) and critical exponent n(T) are evaluated, and are used
in Jonscher's dielectric dispersion relation for ε' to fit with
the experimental data. Complex impedance plots showed a non – Debye type
relaxation, are used to evaluate the grain and grain boundary conduction and
relaxation activation energies. DC and ac conduction activation energies are
estimated from Arrhenius plots. Occupancy of Li+ for C-sites gave
a completely filled structure and enhanced the phase transition temperature
to 520 °C compared to PKN. This is supported by the conduction
activation energy in ferro region is more than the para region. Also, the dc
conductivity characterized from bulk resistance and Mll peak frequency.
Polaron hoping mechanism at room temperature has been confirmed via the
linear variation of the plot log (σac – σdc) as a
function of log ω2. Stretched exponential parameter, β
(0 < β$\leqslant$ 1) has been evaluated from impedance plots, interpreted as
a result of correlated motions between the Li+ ions and distribution of
dielectric relaxation. Compared the results from different techniques, and
discussed the conduction mechanism in the material.
A maize-breeding programme was targeted at resource-poor farmers of eastern India using a client-oriented approach (often called participatory plant breeding). Farmers tested a range of varieties in a participatory varietal selection programme but none proved to be very popular. Information from these trials was used in a breeding programme to develop a broadly-based population from three yellow- and three white-grained maize varieties that were either identified in the trials or had traits liked by farmers. The population was subjected to several cycles of random mating. In the C3, C4 and C6 cycles, subpopulations were extracted and subjected to mass selection over several generations in environments that represented well the target population of environments of resource-poor farmers' fields in eastern India for traits identified by farmers. To identify better the required traits, in some generations the selection was carried out by farmers on a research farm under fertility levels that approximated farmers' practice. The improvement of the subpopulations resulted in several varieties that performed well in research station and on-farm trials. One of them, BVM 2, was released in Jharkhand state, India. In multilocational research station trials, it yielded more than the control variety BM 1 but silked earlier. In the less favourable environments of on-farm trials, its yield superiority, in percentage terms, was higher. Farmers perceived BVM 2 to have better grain quality and stover yield than the local varieties. BVM 2 was specifically bred to meet the needs of the clients (resource-poor farmers with no access to irrigation) and has earlier maturity combined with higher grain yield. The returns were higher from this highly client-oriented approach, than by classical breeding, mainly because uptake was faster as a result of research and extension being done in tandem.
The effort to produce an instrument that can achieve high spatial resolution, nondestructive, surface and sub-surface imaging for a variety of materials comes with many challenges. One approach, magnetic resonance-force microscopy (MRFM), lies at the nexus of two sensitive technologies: magnetic force microscopy (MFM) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). MFM uses a magnetic tip in a standard atomic force microscope (AFM) to obtain magnetic information about a surface. A difference in the magnetic moments of surface atoms in different regions on the surface varies the cantilever resonance. MRI, on the other hand, uses the spin states of magnetically biased atoms to differentiate between chemical species.
We present a new route towards customizing the surface properties of microfluidic channels, by a forest of in situ grown multiwalled carbon nanotubes (CNT). Local distortions of the electrical field direction are used to control the direction of the carbon nanotube growth.