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Many studies document cognitive decline following specific types of acute illness hospitalizations (AIH) such as surgery, critical care, or those complicated by delirium. However, cognitive decline may be a complication following all types of AIH. This systematic review will summarize longitudinal observational studies documenting cognitive changes following AIH in the majority admitted population and conduct meta-analysis (MA) to assess the quantitative effect of AIH on post-hospitalization cognitive decline (PHCD).
We followed Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Selection criteria were defined to identify studies of older age adults exposed to AIH with cognitive measures. 6566 titles were screened. 46 reports were reviewed qualitatively, of which seven contributed data to the MA. Risk of bias was assessed using the Newcastle–Ottawa Scale.
The qualitative review suggested increased cognitive decline following AIH, but several reports were particularly vulnerable to bias. Domain-specific outcomes following AIH included declines in memory and processing speed. Increasing age and the severity of illness were the most consistent risk factors for PHCD. PHCD was supported by MA of seven eligible studies with 41,453 participants (Cohen’s d = −0.25, 95% CI [−0.02, −0.49] I2 35%).
There is preliminary evidence that AIH exposure accelerates or triggers cognitive decline in the elderly patient. PHCD reported in specific contexts could be subsets of a larger phenomenon and caused by overlapping mechanisms. Future research must clarify the trajectory, clinical significance, and etiology of PHCD: a priority in the face of an aging population with increasing rates of both cognitive impairment and hospitalization.
Background: Unintentional opioid overdoses in and around acute care hospitals, including in the ED, are of increasing concern. In April 2018, the Addiction Recovery and Community Health (ARCH) Team at the Royal Alexandra Hospital opened the first acute care Supervised Consumption Service (SCS) in North America available to inpatients. In the SCS, patients can consume substances by injection, oral or intranasal routes under nursing supervision; immediate assistance is provided if an overdose occurs. After a quality assurance review, work began to expand SCS access to ED patients as well. Aim Statement: By expanding SCS access to ED patients, we aim to reduce unintentional and unwitnessed opioid overdoses in registered ED patients to 0 per month by the end of 2020. Measures & Design: Between June 13-July 15, 2019, ARCH ED Registered Nurses were asked to identify ED patients with a history of active substance use who may potentially require SCS access. Nurses identified 69 patients over 43 8-hour shifts (range 0-4 patients per shift); thus, we anticipated an average of 5 ED patients per 24-hour period to potentially require SCS access. Based on this evidence of need, ARCH leadership worked with a) hospital legal team and Health Canada to expand SCS access to ED patients; b) ED leadership to develop a procedure and flowchart for ED SCS access. ED patients were able to access the SCS effective October 1, 2019. Evaluation/Results: From October 1 to December 1, 2019, the SCS had 35 visits by 23 unique ED patients. The median time spent in the SCS was 42.5 minutes (range 14.0-140.0 minutes). Methamphetamine was the most commonly used substance (19, 45.2%), followed by fentanyl (10, 23.8%); substances were all injected (91.4% into a vein and 8.6% into an existing IV). In this time period, there were zero unintentional, unwitnessed opioid poisonings in registered ED patients. Data collection is ongoing and will expand to include chief complaint, ED length of stay and discharge status. Discussion/Impact: Being able to reduce unintentional overdoses and unwitnessed injection drug use in the ED has the potential to improve both patient and staff safety. Next steps include a case series designed to examine the impact of SCS access on emergency care, retention in treatment and uptake into addiction treatment.
Social impairments form one of the major deficits of Autism Spectrum Disorders and are frequently associated with anxiety in school-going children. Social skills programs have been most well-validated to address the issue but components of the programs require further examination.
The study aims to develop and evaluate a group-based Social Recreational program that encourages interaction and behaviour regulation among children with High-Functioning Autism through their participation in activities that address meaningful and functional skills in a naturalistic social setting. The components of the program are described.
30 children were enrolled in the 16-sessions weekly program. Attending psychiatrists rated the children on the Clinical Global Impression - Severity scale (CGI-S) at pre-, post-, 3-month, 6-month and one-year follow-up. Anxiety levels of the children were measured by self-reports on the Spence Child Anxiety Scale - Child (SCAS-C) and parent-reports on the Spence Child Anxiety Scale - Parent (SCAS-P).
Clinician ratings on the CGI-S showed significant improvements in the children upon completion of the program (Friedman, X2 = 22.69, p = .000) and the gains were maintained at follow-ups. Repeated measures ANOVA with a Greenhouse-Geisser correction showed lower self-reported anxiety in children after the program, F (2.89, 72.26) = 4.07, p = .004. Post-hoc pair-wise comparisons suggested that the children were significantly less anxious at the 6-month follow-up.
The program suggests promising benefits although there are no active anxiety remediation components. Its value lies in its applicability in wider community settings. Implications of its effectiveness are discussed.
Over 50% of adult disability claimants fail some form of SVT. While some over report psychological, affective symptoms, others may report incredible cognitive symptoms. We examined effects of different types of response bias on free recall and self-reported depression.
Participants and methods This is a single site cross-sectional study using a convenience sample (n = 224) of disability claimants in the Netherlands. The Green Word Memory Test (GWMT) was administered to all subjects. The Amsterdam Short Term Memory Test (AKTG), the Structured Inventory of Malingered. Symptomatology (SIMS), and the beck depression inventory (BDI-II) were administered in subsamples. Participant classification according to GWMT and SIMS outcomes resulted in four groups, G+/S+, G+/S−, G−/S+ and G−/S−.
Average age of the participants was 46.3 years (SD 9.9), 41.5% were female, and 43% were higher educated. GWMT was positive in 48.2% of all subjects, and 27.6% scored positive on both GWMT and SIMS. Analysis of variance of GWMT Free recall and Beck depression scores showed significant group differences [F(3, 123) = 33.21, P = .000] and [F(3, 106) = 25.17, P = .000] respectively.
Non credible test performance was prevalent in this Dutch study of disability claimants. Insufficient effort and over reporting of psychological symptoms are associated with different score profiles on regular tests and self-rating scales.
Disclosure of interest
The author receives funding for his work as a neuropsychologist in an expertise setting.
Valid assessments require sufficient effort from the part of the testee. Motivation may be compromised, particularly in psychiatric conditions. We examined associations between response bias on free recall and self-reported symptoms in depressed and PTSD patients.
Participants and methods
This is a cross-sectional study. Patients had depression (n = 48), or PTSD or other anxiety disorders (n = 37). A control group (n = 47%) had chronic pain disorder, fibromyalgia or chronic fatigue. The Green Word Memory Test (GWMT) was administered to all subjects. The Structured Inventory of Malingered. Symptomatology (SIMS), and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II) were administered in subsamples. Study outcome was self-reported depressive symptoms in Symptom Validity Test (SVT) negative cases.
Average age of the participants was 45.1 years (SD 9.5), 48.5% were female. GWMT was positive in 52.3% of all cases, GWMT and SIMS were positive in 33.8%, and GWMT and SIMS were negative in 37.7%. No significant group effects on GWMT were found. Average BDI-II scores were 32.8 (SD 13.9) for depressed patients, 28.3 (15.5) for those with anxiety disorders, and 27.6 (14.1) for controls (P = 0.43). Seventy-eight percent of depressed GWMT negative cases reported at least moderate depressive symptoms (BDI-II > 18), and 44.4% severe symptoms (BDI-II > 29). Approximately half of the GWMT negative cases with anxiety disorders and controls scored BDI-II > 18.
Non credible test performance is prevalent in disability claimants with affective, mood disorders. However, depressive symptoms per se do not explain poor effort on cognitive tasks.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
The inferior vena cava (IVC) is formed by the confluence of the common iliac veins, just anterior to the L5 vertebral body, and posterior to the right common iliac artery. As it courses superiorly towards the diaphragm, it lies to the right of the lumbar and thoracic vertebral bodies. It enters the thorax at T8, where the right crus of the diaphragm separates the IVC and aorta. In most individuals, there is a small segment of suprahepatic IVC, about 1 cm in length, between the liver and diaphragm, which is amenable to cross clamping.
The IVC receives four or five pairs of lumbar veins, the right gonadal vein, the renal veins, the right adrenal vein, the hepatic veins, and the phrenic veins. It is of practical importance to remember that all lumbar veins are below the renal veins and that between the renal veins and the hepatic veins, besides the right adrenal vein, there are no other venous branches. The left lumbar veins pass behind the abdominal aorta.
The confluence of the renal veins with the IVC lies posterior to the duodenum and the head of the pancreas.
The retrohepatic IVC is about 8–10 cm in length and is adhered to the posterior liver, helping to anchor the liver in place. In this liver “tunnel,” several accessory veins from the caudate lobe and right lobe drain directly into the IVC.
There are three major hepatic veins which drain the liver into the IVC. The extrahepatic portion of these veins is short, measuring about 0.5–1.5 cm in length. The right hepatic vein is the largest. In about 70% of individuals, the middle vein drains into the left hepatic vein to enter the IVC as a single vein.
The thoracic IVC is almost entirely in the pericardium.
Introduction: Morbidity and mortality from opioid overdoses continue to be a significant issue worldwide. In Alberta, there was a 40% increase in accidental opioid-related deaths from 2016 to 2017. In response to this crisis, Alberta Health Services has dramatically expanded access to Naloxone with a province-wide program for the distribution of take-home naloxone (THN) kits. Edmonton Zone ED's began dispensing these kits in 2016. The objectives of this study are to assess the trends in THN kit distribution from these sites in 2016 and 2017. Methods: The Edmonton Zone is a health region that comprises eleven tertiary, urban community and rural community ED's. THN kits in Edmonton Zone ED's were distributed through Pyxis, an automated medication dispensing and tracking system. Pyxis data for THN kits in 2016 and 2017 was extracted for each Edmonton Zone ED and the raw numbers and trends were examined. The National Ambulatory Care Reporting System database was also analyzed to determine the number of opioid related visits to Edmonton Zone ED's over that same time period. Results: A total of 686 THN kits in the Edmonton Zone were distributed over 2016 and 2017. The two tertiary centers distributed 502 kits, while the urban and rural community emergency departments collectively distributed 184 kits. Comparing 2016 (n = 245) to 2017 (n = 441), there was an 80% overall increase in the number of kits distributed, with tertiary center ED's dispensing 92% more kits, urban community ED's 51% more and rural ED's 63% more. Over the same time period, the number of opioid related visits increased in tertiary center ED's by 78%, in urban community sites by 26%, and in rural ED's by 67%. Almost all ED's increased their THN kit distribution from year to year, though there was one urban community site that dispensed fewer kits in the second year of the program. Conclusion: Edmonton Zone ED's dispensed 686 THN kits over two calendar years. Almost every ED distributed more kits in 2017 than 2016, which likely reflects successful uptake of this harm reduction intervention by frontline ED staff. However, there is still evidence of some imbalance in THN kit allocation as the percent increase in kits distributed varied widely based on the type of ED. This data can be used to pinpoint areas in the Edmonton Zone where barriers to THN access may still exist and guide continued quality improvement interventions to increase distribution and education.
Hill (Twin Research and Human Genetics, Vol. 21, 2018, 84–88) presented a critique of our recently published paper in Cell Reports entitled ‘Large-Scale Cognitive GWAS Meta-Analysis Reveals Tissue-Specific Neural Expression and Potential Nootropic Drug Targets’ (Lam et al., Cell Reports, Vol. 21, 2017, 2597–2613). Specifically, Hill offered several interrelated comments suggesting potential problems with our use of a new analytic method called Multi-Trait Analysis of GWAS (MTAG) (Turley et al., Nature Genetics, Vol. 50, 2018, 229–237). In this brief article, we respond to each of these concerns. Using empirical data, we conclude that our MTAG results do not suffer from ‘inflation in the FDR [false discovery rate]’, as suggested by Hill (Twin Research and Human Genetics, Vol. 21, 2018, 84–88), and are not ‘more relevant to the genetic contributions to education than they are to the genetic contributions to intelligence’.
BACKGROUND: Meningiomas are the most common primary benign brain tumors in adults. Given the extended life expectancy of most meningiomas, consideration of quality of life (QOL) is important when selecting the optimal management strategy. There is currently a dearth of meningioma-specific QOL tools in the literature. OBJECTIVE: In this systematic review, we analyze the prevailing themes and propose toward building a meningioma-specific QOL assessment tool. METHODS: A systematic search was conducted, and only original studies based on adult patients were considered. QOL tools used in the various studies were analyzed for identification of prevailing themes in the qualitative analysis. The quality of the studies was also assessed. RESULTS: Sixteen articles met all inclusion criteria. Fifteen different QOL assessment tools assessed social and physical functioning, psychological, and emotional well-being. Patient perceptions and support networks had a major impact on QOL scores. Surgery negatively affected social functioning in younger patients, while radiation therapy had a variable impact. Any intervention appeared to have a greater negative impact on physical functioning compared to observation. CONCLUSION: Younger patients with meningiomas appear to be more vulnerable within social and physical functioning domains. All of these findings must be interpreted with great caution due to great clinical heterogeneity, limited generalizability, and risk of bias. For meningioma patients, the ideal QOL questionnaire would present outcomes that can be easily measured, presented, and compared across studies. Existing scales can be the foundation upon which a comprehensive, standard, and simple meningioma-specific survey can be prospectively developed and validated.
Following the B777 accident at Heathrow in 2008, the certification authorities required Boeing, Airbus, and Rolls-Royce to conduct icing analysis and tests of their Rolls-Royce Trent engined aircraft fuel systems. The experience and the test data gained from these activities were distilled and released by Airbus to the EASA ICAR project for research and analysis. This paper provided an overview of the Airbus ice accretion and release tests. Brief narratives on the test rigs, the test procedure and methodology were given and key findings from the ice release investigations were presented. The accreted ice thickness was non-uniform; however, it is found typically c.
thick. Analysis of the accreted ice collected from the rig tests showed the ice was very porous. The porosity is very much dependant on how the water was introduced and mixed in the icing test rigs. The standard Airbus method produced accreted ice of higher porosity compared to that produced by the injection method. The porosity of the accreted ice from Airbus icing investigations was found to be c. 0.90. The relationship of permeability with porosity was inferred from published data and models for freshly fallen snow in the atmosphere. Derived permeability
was then applied in the CFD analysis of pipe flow with a porous wall lining to determine the shear stress on the accreted ice. It showed that 25%, 50% and 75% of the accreted ice has interface shear strength of less than
The increasing tropospheric ozone concentration [O3] strongly affects plant growth. However, the response of belowground processes in rice (Oryza sativa L.) systems to higher O3 is not well understood. The grain production, belowground biomass partitioning, root morphology and activity of rice (cv. Shanyou 63) were investigated in a free-air O3 enrichment platform at four key growth stages. Elevated O3 (EO3, 50% above the ambient O3) significantly decreased the grain yield and total biomass at the grain milky mature stage, root biomass at the tillering stage and root to shoot ratios (RRS) at the flowering and grain filling stages. The effects of EO3 on root morphology and activity varied among rice growth stage. EO3 significantly decreased root length, density, area, diameter and volume at the flowering stage, but EO3 significantly decreased various root morphological indices at the tillering, grain filling and milky mature stages. EO3 significantly increased the specific root respiration rate (root activity) and root respiration rate (autotrophic respiration) at grain filling and milky mature stages. Higher root autotrophic respiration and lower RRS in response to EO3 would reduce allocation of assimilated carbon to root growth, adversely affecting rice productivity. Our findings are critical for understanding the O3-induced impairment of belowground processes and carbon cycling in rice cropping systems and breeding of O3-tolerant cultivars under higher [O3] scenarios.
In Hong Kong, universal varicella vaccination started in July 2014. Before this, children could receive varicella vaccine via the private market. We analysed the epidemiology of varicella and zoster before universal vaccination. We estimated varicella vaccination coverage through surveys in preschool children. We estimated the burden of varicella and zoster with varicella notifications from 1999/00 to 2013/14, Accident and Emergency Department (A&E) attendance and inpatient admissions to public hospitals from 2004/05 to 2013/14. We fitted a catalytic model to serological data on antibodies against varicella-zoster virus to estimate the force of infection. We found that varicella vaccination coverage gradually increased to about 50% before programme inception. In children younger than 5 years, the annual rate of varicella notifications, varicella admission and zoster A&E attendance generally declined. The annual notification, A&E attendance and hospitalisation rate of varicella and zoster generally increased for individuals between 10 and 59 years old. Varicella serology indicated an age shift during the study period towards a higher proportion of infections in slightly older individuals, but the change was most notable before vaccine licensure. In conclusion, we observed a shift in the burden of varicella to slightly older age groups with a corresponding increase in incidence but it cannot necessarily be attributed to private market vaccine coverage alone. Increasing varicella vaccination uptake in the private market might affect varicella transmission and epidemiology, but not to the level of interrupting transmission.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: Obstructive lung disease following particulate matter (PM) exposure is a major health concern. Coexisting metabolic syndrome (MetSyn) often occurs. Receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) is highly expressed in the lung, is a strong predictor of FEV1, and is a key mediator of MetSyn. To determine if the loss of RAGE protects from the persistence of effects of particulate associated lung injury in a murine model. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Wild type (WT) and RAGE knockout (RKO) mice were exposed to 100 μg of PM (WTC-Aggregate, PM53) or PBS control by oropharyngeal aspiration. Lung function, methacholine challenge, and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) were quantified 28 days after PM exposure using flexiVent (Scireq Montreal, QC). BAL was obtained and cell differentials, cytokines and transcription factors were assayed. Bio-volume to airspace ratio and mean chord length were measured (Image J and Adobe Photoshop). RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: WT mice were hyper-reactive to methacholine compared with their PBS controls 28 days after a single exposure to PM. They recovered from increased neutrophilia, loss of FEV, decreased compliance, and increased resistance, which were previously observed 24-hours after exposure. RKO were not hyper-reactive when compared with their own PBS controls. Lung histology shows persistence of loss of alveolar space in WT mice exposed to PM after 28 days. Area fraction was significantly higher in PM exposed WT mice after 28 days which was not significant after 24 hours. Mean chord length was significantly shorter for PM exposed at both time points for WT mice. The relative expression of phosphorylated to total CREB and ERK1/2 proteins was lower in RKO PM exposed mice compared with WT PM while STAT3 expression was lower in WT PM compared with WT PBS. PM induced a lower fold change of total proteins from the PBS controls in RKO for CREB, p38, ERK1/2, STAT3, and STAT5. JNK and p70S6k total proteins expressed a decreased fold change in WT PM exposed mice compared with WT PBS controls. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: A single dose of PM can produce persistent airway hyper-reactivity after 28 days of exposure. This PM induced injury is alleviated in the absence of RAGE, similar to what was seen at 24 hours. Inhibiting RAGE may be key to limiting the persistent inflammatory effects of high intensity PM exposure.
There is a need for clinical tools to identify cultural issues in diagnostic assessment.
To assess the feasibility, acceptability and clinical utility of the DSM-5 Cultural Formulation Interview (CFI) in routine clinical practice.
Mixed-methods evaluation of field trial data from six countries. The CFI was administered to diagnostically diverse psychiatric out-patients during a diagnostic interview. In post-evaluation sessions, patients and clinicians completed debriefing qualitative interviews and Likert-scale questionnaires. The duration of CFI administration and the full diagnostic session were monitored.
Mixed-methods data from 318 patients and 75 clinicians found the CFI feasible, acceptable and useful. Clinician feasibility ratings were significantly lower than patient ratings and other clinician-assessed outcomes. After administering one CFI, however, clinician feasibility ratings improved significantly and subsequent interviews required less time.
The CFI was included in DSM-5 as a feasible, acceptable and useful cultural assessment tool.
During 1990 we surveyed the southern sky using a multi-beam receiver at frequencies of 4850 and 843 MHz. The half-power beamwidths were 4 and 25 arcmin respectively. The finished surveys cover the declination range between +10 and −90 degrees declination, essentially complete in right ascension, an area of 7.30 steradians. Preliminary analysis of the 4850 MHz data indicates that we will achieve a five sigma flux density limit of about 30 mJy. We estimate that we will find between 80 000 and 90 000 new sources above this limit. This is a revised version of the paper presented at the Regional Meeting by the first four authors; the surveys now have been completed.
Selective area growth of thin films reduces the number of steps in microfabrication processing and enables novel device structures. Here, we report, for the first time, selective area epitaxy of an oxide material on a GaN surface. Chlorination of the GaN surface via wet chemical processing is found effective to disrupt Mg adsorption and selectively prevent molecular beam epitaxy growth of MgO. MgO films grown on neighboring, nonchlorinated surfaces are epitaxial with a (111) MgO||(0001) GaN crystallographic relationship. Better than 3 μm lateral resolution for the selective area growth of MgO on GaN is demonstrated.
Sudden release of accreted ice in fuel systems could pose a serious challenge in aircraft operation. The resultant snowshower may reach the filter and fuel-oil heat exchanger, causing a restriction in fuel flow to the engine. It is fundamental to have an appreciation of the character and the interface shear strength of the accreted ice in aircraft fuel systems. This helps to recognise factors for the sudden release of the accreted ice and the intensity of the consequential snowshower. An experimental study was carried out to quantify the character and the interface shear strength of accreted ice on subcooled surfaces submerged in jet fuel. Ice was accreted on naked aluminium, painted aluminium and carbon fibre composite surfaces at various subcooled temperatures. The accreted ice was akin to fresh snow and exhibited soft and fluffy attributes. The character may be expressed quantitatively in terms of the porosity and was found to be c. 0·95. The ice weakly adhered to the substrate surfaces, and the interface shear strength was found to be c. 0·36Pa and c. 2·19Pa at the top surface and at the vertical surface of a specimen block, respectively. It was not possible to detect any variation in the porosity and the interface shear strength for different types of surface finishes and differences in water affnity in fuels due to the crude approach in the estimation of these parameters.