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Comprising fifteen books and over two hundred and fifty myths, Ovid's Metamorphoses is one of the longest extant Latin poems from the ancient world and one of the most influential works in Western culture. It is an epic on desire and transgression that became a gateway to the entire world of pagan mythology and visual imagination. This, the first complete commentary in English, covers all aspects of the text – from textual interpretation to poetics, imagination, and ideology – and will be useful as a teaching aid and an orientation for those who are interested in the text and its reception. Historically, the poem's audience includes readers interested in opera and ballet, psychology and sexuality, myth and painting, feminism and posthumanism, vegetarianism and metempsychosis (to name just a few outside the area of Classical Studies).
The report of a detection of an absorption profile centred at 78 MHz in the continuum radio background spectrum by the EDGES experiment and its interpretation as the redshifted 21 cm signal of cosmological origin has become one of the most debated results of observational cosmology in recent times. The cosmological 21 cm has long been proposed to be a powerful probe for observing the early Universe and tracing its evolution over cosmic time. Even though the science case is well established, measurement challenges posed on the technical ground are not fully understood to the level of claiming a successful detection. EDGES’s detection has naturally motivated a number of experimental attempts worldwide to corroborate the findings. In this paper, we present a precision cross-correlation spectrometer HYPEREION purpose-designed for a precision radio background measurement between 50–120 MHz to detect the absorption profile reported by the EDGES experiment. HYPEREION implements a pre-correlation signal processing technique that self-calibrates any spurious additive contamination from within the system and delivers a differential measurement of the sky spectrum and a reference thermal load internal to the system. This ensures an unambiguous ‘zero-point’ of absolute calibration of the purported absorption profile. We present the system design, measurement equations of the ideal system, systematic effects in the real system, and finally, an assessment of the real system output for the detection of the absorption profile at 78 MHz in the continuum radio background spectrum.
ABSTRACT IMPACT: This is the first examination of risk factors for prolonged opioid use after an ICU stay and will inform efforts to strengthen prescribing guidelines and care transition models for patients after critical illness. OBJECTIVES/GOALS: The majority of patients in intensive care units (ICU) receive opioids during admission, and up to 25% receive a prescription at discharge. However, transitions of care and prolonged use after discharge remain unknown. We aim to characterize risk factors for prolonged opioid use after an ICU stay. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: A retrospective study using insurance claims from Optum Clinformatics ®Data Mart was conducted for opioid-naive adult patients (18-64 years) with an ICU admission from 2010 to 2019. The primary outcome was new persistent opioid use, defined as a continued prescription fill 91-180 days after discharge, in addition to a fill in the first 90 days. The primary exposure was an opioid fill at discharge. The ICU admission was characterized using the Clinical Classification System from the Agency of Healthcare Research and Quality, based on patients’primary diagnosis code. Diagnoses were combined into 11 groups highlighting the affected organ system/mechanism of injury. Logistic regression evaluated the associations of patient demographic and clinical characteristics with the probability of persistent opioid use. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: In this cohort of 90,721 patients discharged from the ICU, 3.3% continued to fill opioids at 6 months. An opioid prescription fill (OR 3.1; 95% CI 28 - 3.3) and benzodiazepine prescription fill (OR 1.6; 95% CI 1.4 - 1.8) within 3 days of ICU discharge were each significantly associated with the development of new persistent opioid use. Patient diagnosis groups of Musculoskeletal/Trauma (OR 2.3; 95% CI 2.0 - 2.6), Neoplasms (OR 1.6; 95% CI 1.5 - 1.9), and GI/Hepatobiliary (OR 1.5; 95% CI 1.3 - 1.8) were significantly more likely to develop new persistent use when compared to the Cardiovascular diagnosis group. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF FINDINGS: Opioid prescriptions at discharge after an ICU stay increase the odds of prolonged opioid use. These results will inform efforts to strengthen prescribing guidelines and care models after a critical illness. Further work will characterize the trajectory of prescribing and patient exposure to high-risk prescribing after ICU discharge.
The Murchison Widefield Array (MWA) is an open access telescope dedicated to studying the low-frequency (80–300 MHz) southern sky. Since beginning operations in mid-2013, the MWA has opened a new observational window in the southern hemisphere enabling many science areas. The driving science objectives of the original design were to observe 21 cm radiation from the Epoch of Reionisation (EoR), explore the radio time domain, perform Galactic and extragalactic surveys, and monitor solar, heliospheric, and ionospheric phenomena. All together
programs recorded 20 000 h producing 146 papers to date. In 2016, the telescope underwent a major upgrade resulting in alternating compact and extended configurations. Other upgrades, including digital back-ends and a rapid-response triggering system, have been developed since the original array was commissioned. In this paper, we review the major results from the prior operation of the MWA and then discuss the new science paths enabled by the improved capabilities. We group these science opportunities by the four original science themes but also include ideas for directions outside these categories.
The Murchison Widefield Array (MWA) is an electronically steered low-frequency (<300 MHz) radio interferometer, with a ‘slew’ time less than 8 s. Low-frequency (∼100 MHz) radio telescopes are ideally suited for rapid response follow-up of transients due to their large field of view, the inverted spectrum of coherent emission, and the fact that the dispersion delay between a 1 GHz and 100 MHz pulse is on the order of 1–10 min for dispersion measures of 100–2000 pc/cm3. The MWA has previously been used to provide fast follow-up for transient events including gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), fast radio bursts (FRBs), and gravitational waves, using systems that respond to gamma-ray coordinates network packet-based notifications. We describe a system for automatically triggering MWA observations of such events, based on Virtual Observatory Event standard triggers, which is more flexible, capable, and accurate than previous systems. The system can respond to external multi-messenger triggers, which makes it well-suited to searching for prompt coherent radio emission from GRBs, the study of FRBs and gravitational waves, single pulse studies of pulsars, and rapid follow-up of high-energy superflares from flare stars. The new triggering system has the capability to trigger observations in both the regular correlator mode (limited to ≥0.5 s integrations) and using the Voltage Capture System (VCS, 0.1 ms integration) of the MWA and represents a new mode of operation for the MWA. The upgraded standard correlator triggering capability has been in use since MWA observing semester 2018B (July–Dec 2018), and the VCS and buffered mode triggers will become available for observing in a future semester.
We apply two methods to estimate the 21-cm bispectrum from data taken within the Epoch of Reionisation (EoR) project of the Murchison Widefield Array (MWA). Using data acquired with the Phase II compact array allows a direct bispectrum estimate to be undertaken on the multiple redundantly spaced triangles of antenna tiles, as well as an estimate based on data gridded to the uv-plane. The direct and gridded bispectrum estimators are applied to 21 h of high-band (167–197 MHz; z = 6.2–7.5) data from the 2016 and 2017 observing seasons. Analytic predictions for the bispectrum bias and variance for point-source foregrounds are derived. We compare the output of these approaches, the foreground contribution to the signal, and future prospects for measuring the bispectra with redundant and non-redundant arrays. We find that some triangle configurations yield bispectrum estimates that are consistent with the expected noise level after 10 h, while equilateral configurations are strongly foreground-dominated. Careful choice of triangle configurations may be made to reduce foreground bias that hinders power spectrum estimators, and the 21-cm bispectrum may be accessible in less time than the 21-cm power spectrum for some wave modes, with detections in hundreds of hours.
We provide the first in situ measurements of antenna element beam shapes of the Murchison Widefield Array. Most current processing pipelines use an assumed beam shape, which can cause absolute and relative flux density errors and polarisation ‘leakage’. Understanding the primary beam is then of paramount importance, especially for sensitive experiments such as a measurement of the 21-cm line from the epoch of reionisation, where the calibration requirements are so extreme that tile to tile beam variations may affect our ability to make a detection. Measuring the primary beam shape from visibilities is challenging, as multiple instrumental, atmospheric, and astrophysical factors contribute to uncertainties in the data. Building on the methods of Neben et al. [Radio Sci., 50, 614], we tap directly into the receiving elements of the telescope before any digitisation or correlation of the signal. Using ORBCOMM satellite passes we are able to produce all-sky maps for four separate tiles in the XX polarisation. We find good agreement with the beam model of Sokolowski et al. [2017, PASA, 34, e062], and clearly observe the effects of a missing dipole from a tile in one of our beam maps. We end by motivating and outlining additional on-site experiments.
We describe the motivation and design details of the ‘Phase II’ upgrade of the Murchison Widefield Array radio telescope. The expansion doubles to 256 the number of antenna tiles deployed in the array. The new antenna tiles enhance the capabilities of the Murchison Widefield Array in several key science areas. Seventy-two of the new tiles are deployed in a regular configuration near the existing array core. These new tiles enhance the surface brightness sensitivity of the array and will improve the ability of the Murchison Widefield Array to estimate the slope of the Epoch of Reionisation power spectrum by a factor of ∼3.5. The remaining 56 tiles are deployed on long baselines, doubling the maximum baseline of the array and improving the array u, v coverage. The improved imaging capabilities will provide an order of magnitude improvement in the noise floor of Murchison Widefield Array continuum images. The upgrade retains all of the features that have underpinned the Murchison Widefield Array’s success (large field of view, snapshot image quality, and pointing agility) and boosts the scientific potential with enhanced imaging capabilities and by enabling new calibration strategies.
The discovery of the first electromagnetic counterpart to a gravitational wave signal has generated follow-up observations by over 50 facilities world-wide, ushering in the new era of multi-messenger astronomy. In this paper, we present follow-up observations of the gravitational wave event GW170817 and its electromagnetic counterpart SSS17a/DLT17ck (IAU label AT2017gfo) by 14 Australian telescopes and partner observatories as part of Australian-based and Australian-led research programs. We report early- to late-time multi-wavelength observations, including optical imaging and spectroscopy, mid-infrared imaging, radio imaging, and searches for fast radio bursts. Our optical spectra reveal that the transient source emission cooled from approximately 6 400 K to 2 100 K over a 7-d period and produced no significant optical emission lines. The spectral profiles, cooling rate, and photometric light curves are consistent with the expected outburst and subsequent processes of a binary neutron star merger. Star formation in the host galaxy probably ceased at least a Gyr ago, although there is evidence for a galaxy merger. Binary pulsars with short (100 Myr) decay times are therefore unlikely progenitors, but pulsars like PSR B1534+12 with its 2.7 Gyr coalescence time could produce such a merger. The displacement (~2.2 kpc) of the binary star system from the centre of the main galaxy is not unusual for stars in the host galaxy or stars originating in the merging galaxy, and therefore any constraints on the kick velocity imparted to the progenitor are poor.
We describe the design and performance of the Engineering Development Array, which is a low-frequency radio telescope comprising 256 dual-polarisation dipole antennas working as a phased array. The Engineering Development Array was conceived of, developed, and deployed in just 18 months via re-use of Square Kilometre Array precursor technology and expertise, specifically from the Murchison Widefield Array radio telescope. Using drift scans and a model for the sky brightness temperature at low frequencies, we have derived the Engineering Development Array’s receiver temperature as a function of frequency. The Engineering Development Array is shown to be sky-noise limited over most of the frequency range measured between 60 and 240 MHz. By using the Engineering Development Array in interferometric mode with the Murchison Widefield Array, we used calibrated visibilities to measure the absolute sensitivity of the array. The measured array sensitivity matches very well with a model based on the array layout and measured receiver temperature. The results demonstrate the practicality and feasibility of using Murchison Widefield Array-style precursor technology for Square Kilometre Array-scale stations. The modular architecture of the Engineering Development Array allows upgrades to the array to be rolled out in a staged approach. Future improvements to the Engineering Development Array include replacing the second stage beamformer with a fully digital system, and to transition to using RF-over-fibre for the signal output from first stage beamformers.
Stroke thrombolysis is limited by the “last-seen well” principle, which defines stroke onset time. A significant minority of stroke patients (~15%) awake with their symptoms and are by definition ineligible for thrombolysis because they were “last-seen well” at the time they went to bed implying an interval that is most often greater than three hours.
A single-centre prospective, safety study was designed to thrombolyse 20 subjects with stroke-on-awakening. Patients were eligible for inclusion if they were last seen well less than 12 hours previously, specifically including those who awoke from sleep with their stroke deficits. They had a baseline computed tomogram (CT) scan with an ASPECTS score greater than 5, no evidence of well-evolved infarction and a CT angiogram / Trans-cranial Doppler ultrasound study demonstrating an intracranial arterial occlusion. Patients fulfilled all other standard criteria for stroke thrombolysis. The primary outcome was safety defined by symptomatic ICH or death.
Among 89 screened patients, 20 were treated with thrombolysis. Two patients (10%) died due to massive carotid territory stroke and two patients (10%) died of stroke complications. Two patients (10%) showed asymptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) (petechial hemorrhage) and none symptomatic ICH. Reasons for exclusion were: (a) ASPECTS ≤ 5 (29); (b) well-evolved infarcts on CT (19); (c) historical mRS > 2 (17); (d) no demonstrable arterial occlusion or were too mild to warrant treatment (10).
Patients who awake with their deficits can be safely treated with thrombolysis based upon a tissue window defined by NCCT and CTA/TCD.
For the first time in any ram pressure stripped galaxy, we detect large amounts of cold molecular gas in the X-ray bright, and star forming tail of ESO 137-001 in the Norma cluster. We find very low star formation efficiency in the stripped gas, similar to values found in the outer spiral disks where however molecular gas is mostly undetected. The results were recently published in Jáchym et al. (2014).
The nearby Virgo Cluster provides an ideal laboratory to study galaxy-galaxy and galaxy-cluster interactions at a level of detail impossible at higher redshift. In Virgo, there exists a large population of spiral galaxies with mostly undisturbed stellar disks, but truncated gas disks. We present results of an observational study of several of these galaxies, utilizing optical and UV imaging, and optical spectroscopy. By combining optical spectroscopy and UV imaging, we are able to constrain the time since star formation ended
in the outer disk and, therefore, constrain the time since the galaxies were stripped. Our results show that while most of the galaxies in our sample are consistent with being stripped near the cluster center, several show evidence for being stripped well outside the core, suggesting that the “reach” of the intracluster medium is greater than is suggested by simple ICM models.
We discuss HI and optical evidence for ongoing ICM-ISM interactions in 6 Hi-deficient Virgo cluster spiral galaxies. One of the clearest cases is the highly inclined Virgo galaxy NGC 4522, which has a normal stellar disk but a truncated gas disk, and lots of extraplanar gas right next to the gas truncation radius in the disk. Unusually strong HI, Hα and radio continuum emission are all detected from the extraplanar gas. The radio continuum polarized flux and spectral index peak on the side opposite the extraplanar gas, suggesting ongoing pressure by the ICM. Four other HI-deficient edge-on Virgo spirals show evidence of extraplanar ISM gas or exhibit asymmetries in their disk HI distributions, but contain much less extraplanar HI than NGC 4522. Comparison with recent simulations suggests this difference may be evolutionary, with large surface densities of extraplanar gas observed only in early phases of an ICM-ISM interaction. In NGC 4569, the Hα image shows 2 effects of ICM pressure on the galaxy ISM. An anomalous arm of HII regions, possibly extraplanar, emerges from the edge of a truncated Hα disk. This resembles the arms seen in simulations which are formed by the combined effects of wind pressure plus rotation. An extended nebulosity near the minor axis, also in the NW, is interpreted as a starburst outflow bubble disturbed by ICM wind pressure.
It is now widely accepted that a combination of torques and dissipation can drive molecular gas into the circumnuclear (inner kpc) region of spirals. However, the fate of the circumnuclear gas is poorly understood and depends on inflow mechanisms, outflow processes, and on star formation. It is unclear why spiral galaxies convert comparable amount of circumnuclear H2 into stars over a timescale (tsf) that varies by nearly two orders of magnitude between galaxies. The ratio M(H2)/L(RC) can be used to show the range in this timescale, where L(RC) is the 1.49 GHz radio continuum (RC) luminosity (Condon et al. 1990), and M(H2) the hydrogen mass traced by CO observations in the central 45″ (4.5 kpc for D=20 Mpc). A similar range is seen if the central 10 micron luminosity is used. Preliminary results from Jogee's thesis suggest that the circumnuclear gas consumption timescale by star formation (tsf) is correlated with the gas morphology (see Fig. 1) and kinematics. In particular, the value of tsf spans a large range in different kinematic regimes within a given galaxy, and together with inflow, this can lead some galaxies to follow evolutionary paths sketched in Fig. 1.
Reaction of chlorosilanes with sheet silicates, such as the naturally occurring apophyllite, [Ca4Si8O2O(F, OH).8H2O] results in the formation of sheet organofunctional siloxane polymers. Similarly, reaction of chlorosilanes with the tube silicate K2CuSi4O10results in the formation of tube organofunctional siloxane polymers. Representative polymers have been characterized by XRD, KR, XPS and solid state 29Si NMR. The interlayer spacing of the sheet polymers varies with the type of the group pendent on the sheet. When the organofunctional pendent groups of the sheet polymers contain reactive sites, further reactivity can be demonstrated with heterogeneous reactions such as hydrosilation. The sheet polymers behave as very effective thickeners of siloxane fluids. Dispersions of them in siloxane fluids exhibit thixotropic properties. The organosilicon polymers have the potential to show useful chemical, thermal, rheological and mechanical properties
The circumnuclear (inner kiloparsec) regions of spiral galaxies are time-dependent systems whose morphology and dynamics can change significantly over less than a Hubble time. To develop an insight into this evolution it is important to study the fate of gas driven towards the central parts of a galaxy especially near the dynamical resonances. The panoply of CO morphologies displayed by the circumnuclear regions of starburst and nonstarburst galaxies such as NGC 3504, NGC 3351, NGC 7479, NGC 6951, etc, (Kenney, these proceedings) is not yet clearly understood. Another unsettled issue concerns the criteria for star formation in the circumnuclear region where, in contrast to the outer disk, the rotation curve is nearly solid-body and rises rapidly. These issues need to be resolved; the gas mass fraction, the radial variation of SFR (star formation rate) and its interplay with the gas kinematics can shed light not only on the temporal evolution of the circumnuclear CO morphology but also on secular evolution through the destruction and creation of new stellar components. For instance, stellar bars can be destroyed by an increase in the central gas mass concentration of a few % of the total galaxy mass while mechanisms to build or enhance a bulge by vertical scattering of the stars in a compact circumnuclear stellar disk have been proposed (Sellwood 1994, Pfenniger & Norman 1990). We have carried out a study of the circumnuclear region of NGC 4102 with these important issues in mind. NGC 4102, a LINER/HII, SABb spiral galaxy at a distance of 17 Mpc with a bar and/or lens feature qualifies as one of the most luminous nearby starbursts (Devereux 1989) and seems to be in a very early phase of evolution. The outflow timescale of the central starburst wind in NGC 4102, determined from optical spectroscopy of the ionized swept-up gas, is 106 years (Boer 1994), suggesting it is at an earlier evolutionary phase than M82 and NGC 253 whose outflow timescales are significantly larger.
We present CO(1-0) interferometer data with × spatial resolution and 13 km s−1 velocity resolution acquired at the Owens Valley Radio Observatory. These data reveal a clumpy circumnuclear ring of gas. We also find a central peak of CO within 2″ of the optical center. Deviations from circular motion are seen where the dust lanes along the leading edge of the bar intersect the nuclear ring, consistent with gas inflow along the bar. Hα maps of this galaxy show bright HII regions near the ends of this inflow region, indicating triggering of star formation by the inflow.