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In 2007, the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching published its influential study of legal education, Educating Lawyers.1 In stressing that the formation of professional identity and purpose is central to the development of law students into lawyers,2Educating Lawyers introduced new language to the legal academy – but not a new mission. For generations, law schools have proclaimed the goal of graduating well-rounded and well-grounded new lawyers who have made good progress toward their socialization in the legal profession.3 The problem that Educating Lawyers perceived was the failure of law schools to pursue the professional formation dimension of their educational work with anything like the intentionality and drive for excellence they exhibit when helping students to think like a lawyer.4 Professional formation was left much to chance. It was the hoped-for consequence of the student’s travails in the bramble bush that is American legal education.
You have come this far, we believe, because you are interested in improving legal education. You would like to help better prepare students for gratifying careers that serve society well. You hold that “thinking like a lawyer” is an important professional skill, but by no means all that there is to being a lawyer. You think that being a professional calls for the development of a wide range of competencies. You think that being a professional should involve the exploration of the values, guiding principles, and well-being practices foundational to successful legal practice.1 You seek to understand these competencies, values, and guiding principles better, and to turn the law school’s attention to those competencies, values, and principles in new and effective ways. You want change. You are willing to innovate.
Do you believe that “thinking like a lawyer” is an important professional skill, but by no means all that there is to being a lawyer? Do you think that being a professional calls for the development of a wide range of competencies? Do you seek to understand those competencies better? Do you think that being a professional should involve the exploration of the values, guiding principles, and well-being practices foundational to successful legal practice?1 Are you interested in new and effective ways to build these competencies, values, and guiding principles into a law school’s curriculum? Would you like a framework for improving your own law school’s attention to these competencies, guiding principles, and values along with practical suggestions you can consider? Would you like to help better prepare students for gratifying careers that serve society well?
In Chapters 1, 2, and 3, we developed a framework that faculty, staff, and administrators can employ to bring purposeful, effective support to students in the pursuit of the four goals that are central to their professional development and formation.
Law schools currently do an excellent job of helping students to 'think like a lawyer,' but empirical data show that clients, legal employers, and the legal system need students to develop a wider range of competencies. This book helps legal educators to understand these competencies and provides practical ways to build them into a law school curriculum. Based on recommendations from the American Bar Association, the American Association of Law Schools, and the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching, it will equip students with the skills they need not only to think but to act and feel like a lawyer. With this proposed model, students will internalize the need for professional development toward excellence, their responsibility to others, a client-centered approach to problem solving, and strong well-being practices. These four goals constitute a lawyer's professional identity, and this book empowers legal educators to foster each student's development of a professional identity that leads to a gratifying career that serves society well. This title is Open Access.
Although bovine embryo in vitro production (IVP) is a common assisted reproductive technology, critical points warrant further study, including sperm traits and oxidative status of sperm for in vitro fertilization (IVF). Our aim was to evaluate whether the lipid peroxidation index of commercial bull semen is influenced by sperm traits and oxidative status of sperm populations selected using Percoll® gradient. Semen straws from 48 batches from 14 Nelore bulls were thawed individually, analyzed for motility and subjected to Percoll selection. After Percoll, the lipid peroxidation index of the extender was evaluated, whereas selected sperm were analyzed for motility, acrosome and membrane integrity, mitochondrial membrane potential, chromatin resistance and oxidative potential under IVF conditions. Batches were divided retrospectively in four groups according to lipid peroxidation index. Sperm from Group 4 with the lowest index of lipid peroxidation had, after Percoll selection, greater plasma membrane integrity (81.3%; P = 0.004), higher mitochondrial potential (81.1%; P = 0.009) and lower oxidative potential (135.3 ng thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS)/ml; P = 0.026) compared with Group 1 with highest lipid peroxidation index (74.3%, 73% and 213.1 ng TBARS/ml, respectively). Furthermore, we observed negative correlations for the lipid peroxidation index with motility, membrane integrity and mitochondrial potential, and positive correlations with oxidative potential. In conclusion, oxidative stress in semen straws, as determined using lipid peroxidation in the extender, is associated with sperm traits and their oxidative potential under IVF conditions. These results provided further insights regarding the importance of preventing oxidative stress during semen handling and cryopreservation, as this could affect sperm selected for IVF. Finally, Percoll selection did not completely remove sperm with oxidative markers.
We investigate parallel Lagrangian foliations on Kähler manifolds. On the one hand, we show that a Kähler metric admitting a parallel Lagrangian foliation must be flat. On the other hand, we give many examples of parallel Lagrangian foliations on closed flat Kähler manifolds which are not tori. These examples arise from Anosov automorphisms preserving a Kähler form.
This paper discusses the evidence for periodic human activity in the Cairngorm Mountains of Scotland from the late 9th millennium to the early 4th millennium cal bc. While contemporary paradigms for Mesolithic Europe acknowledge the significance of upland environments, the archaeological record for these areas is not yet as robust as that for the lowland zone. Results of excavation at Chest of Dee, along the headwaters of the River Dee, are set into a wider context with previously published excavations in the area. A variety of site types evidences a sophisticated relationship between people and a dynamic landscape through a period of changing climate. Archaeological benefits of the project include the ability to examine novel aspects of the archaeology leading to a more comprehensive understanding of Mesolithic lifeways. It also offers important lessons in site survival, archaeological investigation, and the management of the upland zone.