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The present model is devoted for the steady stagnation point flow of a Williamson micropolar nanofluid with magneto-hydrodynamics and thermal radiation effects passed over a horizontal porous stretching sheet. The fluid is considered to be gray, absorbing-emitting but non-scattering medium. The Cogley-Vincent-Gilles formulation is adopted to simulate the radiation component of heat transfer. By applying similarity analysis, the governing partial differential equations are transformed into a set of non-linear ordinary differential equations and they are solved by using the bvp4c package in MATLAB. Numerical computations are carried out for various values of the physical parameters. The effects of momentum, microrotation, temperature and nanoparticle volume fraction profiles together with the reduced skin friction coefficient, reduced Nusselt number and reduced Sherwood number of both active and passive controls on the wall mass flux are graphically presented. The present results are compared with previously obtained solutions and they are in good agreement. Results show that the skin friction is increasing functions of the Williamson parameter in both stretching and shrinking surfaces.
The effect of space and temperature dependent heat generation/absorption on an unsteady laminar boundary layer flow of viscous, incompressible, radiating and electrically conducting fluid over a vertical stretching permeable surface is investigated numerically in the presence of applied magnetic field and buoyancy force. By applying similarity analysis, the governing partial differential equations are transformed into a set of non-linear coupled ordinary differential equations and they are solved by Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg method along with shooting technique. The numerical values obtained within the boundary layer for the dimensionless velocity, temperature, skin friction coefficient and heat transfer rate are presented through graphs and tables for several set of values of governing parameters.
The surface-front oxidation mechanism of iron was investigated by time-resolved, glancingangle Fe K-edge fluorescence EXAFS measurements at various oxidation temperatures of 200-700 C. The glancing angle was chosen according to the depth of the oxide layer, roughly 1500-2000A. The oxidation behavior under rapid heating(up to 600°C within 10 minutes) was compared with the slowly heated oxidation process using the Quick-EXAFS measurements. In the slowly heated process, Fe3O4 was the dominating phase at a relatively low temperature (300-400 C) initially. However, at a relatively high temperature (above 600°C), the Fe2O3 and FeO crystalline phases are gradually enriched as the successive oxidation process involving intrusive oxygen proceeded. Remarkably under a prolonged heat treatment above 600°C, the stable FeO phase that exists in a deep-lying interface structure and Fe2O3 phase eventually dominates the thick front-surface structure. In a quickly heated process, however, Fe3O4 phase is less dominating, which is contradictory to the commonly accepted oxidation models. The EXAFS results are discussed in conjunction with the x-ray diffraction features under the same heat treatment conditions.
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