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This study assessed the health and welfare implications of feeding pigs a dry or liquid diet when housed in either fully-slatted or straw-based accommodation. Between April and October 2002, 1024 (Large White × Landrace) × Large White pigs, housed in pens of 32, were fed ad libitum from 34 kg to slaughter at 104 kg liveweight. Data were collected on a range of welfare parameters. Feeding system affected only respiratory health losses. Lameness and tail-biting tended to be more prevalent health conditions in the fully-slatted system, while in the straw-based system pigs showed significantly more enteric and respiratory disease. There were no significant treatment effects on skin lesions or bursitis of the hock. Liquid fed pigs had poorer hygiene scores than dry fed pigs, especially in straw-based housing. Liquid feeding reduced activity level and investigatory behaviours directed towards other pigs. Pigs with straw spent a large proportion of their time manipulating it. Pigs without straw were less active and spent more time manipulating the pen hardware. In post-slaughter assessments, there were no systems differences in lung lesions or osteochondrosis, but other measures differed between housing or feeding systems; pigs with straw had more severe toe erosions on the foot, while pigs without straw had more severe heel erosions. Gastric lesions were more pronounced with dry feeding and in the fully-slatted system. The results highlight the relative health and welfare advantages and disadvantages of these systems for finishing pigs.
We report a series of experiments investigating the influence of feeling lucky or unlucky on people’s choice of known-risk or ambiguous options using the traditional Ellsberg Urns decision-making task. We induced a state of feeling lucky or unlucky in subjects by using a rigged wheel-of-fortune game, which just missed either the bankrupt or the jackpot outcome. In the first experiment a large reversal of the usual ambiguity aversion effect was shown, indicating that feeling lucky made subjects significantly more ambiguity seeking than usual. However, this effect failed to replicate in five refined and larger follow-up experiments. Thus we conclude that there is no evidence that feeling lucky reliably influences ambiguity aversion. Men were less ambiguity averse than women when there were potential gains to be had, but there were no gender differences when the task was negatively framed in terms of losses.
In his Scroogenomics, Joel Waldfogel argues that gifting creates enormous deadweight loss, as individuals give one another gifts that they do not want or cannot use. He views efficiency as static, calculating the gains from trade (or gifting) at the moment of transaction. A puzzle arises, however, when one realizes that gifting has been a nearly ubiquitous institution throughout history. If gifting wastes valuable resources, why does it persist? We argue that gift giving is dynamically efficient despite the possibility of generating short-term deadweight loss. A well-functioning market economy requires expanded social networks and trustworthiness among anonymous and quasi-anonymous exchange partners. Gifting allows individuals to signal trustworthiness by offering ‘burnt sacrifices’. Gifting practices that include a willingness to sacrifice via reciprocity norms, public visibility and ritual will tend to promote generalized trust. We consider these four elements – sacrifice, reciprocity, publicness, and ritual – to be critical institutional design principles for fostering dynamic efficiency. Our essay contributes to the literature on institutional economics by prompting scholars to think about the long-term (dynamic) efficiencies generated by cultural practices that appear inexplicably inefficient.
Surgery is the recommended treatment for resectable T4a laryngeal and hypopharyngeal carcinoma. Non-surgical treatment is an option in a select few patients.
This retrospective study was undertaken to assess the treatment outcomes in patients with resectable T4a carcinoma of the larynx and hypopharynx who received either surgical or non-surgical treatment at our institute and to assess factors influencing these outcomes.
A total of 120 patients were included in the study. They were divided into groups A, B and C based on the presence of extralaryngeal spread through laryngeal membrane, cartilage or both. The overall survival was better among patients who received surgery than those who received non-surgical treatment in the three groups. The factor influencing overall survival was the treatment given in the form of surgical versus non-surgical treatment.
Surgery is the preferred treatment for T4a laryngeal and hypopharyngeal carcinoma, even in patients with extralaryngeal spread without cartilage erosion.
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) disease (COVID-19) has high morbidity and mortality in older adults and people with dementia. Infection control and prevention measures potentially reduce transmission within hospitals.
We aimed to replicate our earlier study of London mental health in-patients to examine changes in clinical guidance and practice and associated COVID-19 prevalence and outcomes between COVID-19 waves 1 and 2 (1 March to 30 April 2020 and 14 December 2020 to 15 February 2021).
We collected the 2 month period prevalence of wave 2 of COVID-19 in older (≥65 years) in-patients and those with dementia, as well as patients’ characteristics, management and outcomes, including vaccinations. We compared these results with those of our wave 1 study.
Sites reported that routine testing and personal protective equipment were available, and routine patient isolation on admission occurred throughout wave 2. COVID-19 infection occurred in 91/358 (25%; 95% CI 21–30%) v. 131/344, (38%; 95% CI 33–43%) P < 0.001 in wave 1. Hospitals identified more asymptomatic carriers (26/91; 29% v. 16/130; 12%) and fewer deaths (12/91; 13% v. 19/131; 15%; odds ratio = 0.92; 0.37–1.81) compared with wave 1. The patient vaccination uptake rate was 49/58 (85%).
Patients in psychiatric in-patient settings, mostly admitted without known SARS-CoV-2 infection, had a high risk of infection compared with people in the community but lower than that during wave 1. Availability of infection control measures in line with a policy of parity of esteem between mental and physical health appears to have lowered within-hospital COVID-19 infections and deaths. Cautious management of vulnerable patient groups including mental health patients may reduce the future impact of COVID-19.
Benzodiazepine (BZD) prescription rates have increased over the past decade in the United States. Available literature indicates that sociodemographic factors may influence diagnostic patterns and/or prescription behaviour. Herein, the aim of this study is to determine whether the gender of the prescriber and/or patient influences BZD prescription.
Cross-sectional study using data from the Florida Medicaid Managed Medical Assistance Program from January 1, 2018 to December 31, 2018. Eligible recipients ages 18 to 64, inclusive, enrolled in the Florida Medicaid plan for at least 1 day, and were dually eligible. Recipients either had a serious mental illness (SMI), or non-SMI and anxiety.
Total 125 463 cases were identified (i.e., received BZD or non-BZD prescription). Main effect of patient and prescriber gender was significant F(1, 125 459) = 0.105, P = 0 .745, partial η2 < 0.001. Relative risk (RR) of male prescribers prescribing a BZD compared to female prescribers was 1.540, 95% confidence intervals (CI) [1.513, 1.567], whereas the RR of male patients being prescribed a BZD compared to female patients was 1.16, 95% CI [1.14, 1.18]. Main effects of patient and prescriber gender were statistically significant F(1, 125 459) = 188.232, P < 0.001, partial η2 = 0.001 and F(1, 125 459) = 349.704, P < 0.001, partial η2 = 0.013, respectively.
Male prescribers are more likely to prescribe BZDs, and male patients are more likely to receive BZDs. Further studies are required to characterize factors that influence this gender-by-gender interaction.
Patients unsuccessfully treated by neurostimulation may represent a highly intractable subgroup of depression. While the efficacy of intravenous (IV) ketamine has been established in patients with treatment-resistant depression (TRD), there is an interest to evaluate its effectiveness in a subpopulation with a history of neurostimulation.
This retrospective, posthoc analysis compared the effects of four infusions of IV ketamine in 135 (x̄ = 44 ± 15.4 years of age) neurostimulation-naïve patients to 103 (x̄ = 47 ± 13.9 years of age) patients with a history of neurostimulation. The primary outcome evaluated changes in depression severity, measured by the Quick Inventory for Depression Symptomatology-Self Report 16-Item (QIDS-SR16). Secondary outcomes evaluated suicidal ideation (SI), anxiety severity, measured by the Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7-Item (GAD-7), and consummatory anhedonia, measured by the Snaith–Hamilton Pleasure Scale (SHAPS).
Following four infusions, both cohorts reported a significant reduction in QIDS-SR16 Total Score (F (4, 648) = 73.4, P < .001), SI (F (4, 642) = 28.6, P < .001), GAD-7 (F (2, 265) = 53.8, P < .001), and SHAPS (F (2, 302) = 45.9, P < .001). No between-group differences emerged. Overall, the neurostimulation-naïve group had a mean reduction in QIDS-SR16 Total Score of 6.4 (standard deviation [SD] = 5.3), whereas the history of neurostimulation patients reported a 4.3 (SD = 5.3) point reduction.
IV ketamine was effective in reducing symptoms of depression, SI, anxiety, and anhedonia in both cohorts in this large, well-characterized community-based sample of adults with TRD.
Higher body mass index (BMI) has been found to predict greater antidepressant response to intravenous (IV) ketamine treatment. We evaluated the association between BMI and response to repeat-dose IV ketamine in patients with treatment-resistant depression (TRD).
Adults (N = 230) with TRD received four infusions of IV ketamine at a community-based clinic. Changes in symptoms of depression (ie, Quick Inventory for Depressive Symptomatology-Self-Report 16; QIDS-SR16), suicidal ideation (SI; ie, QIDS-SR16 SI item), anxiety (ie, Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 Scale), anhedonic severity (ie, Snaith–Hamilton Pleasure Scale), and functioning (ie, Sheehan Disability Scale) following infusions were evaluated. Participants were stratified by BMI as normal (18.0-24.9 kg/m2; n = 72), overweight (25-29.9 kg/m2; n = 76), obese I (30-34.9 kg/m2; n = 47), or obese II (≥35.0 kg/m2; n = 35).
Similar antidepressant effects with repeat-dose ketamine were reported between BMI groups (P = .261). In addition, categorical partial response (P = .149), response (P = .526), and remission (P = .232) rates were similar between the four BMI groups.
The findings are limited by the observational, open-label design of this retrospective analysis. Pretreatment BMI did not predict response to IV ketamine, which was effective regardless of BMI.
This chapter attempts a dialogue between developmental psychology and sociology to explore the potential contribution a joint approach can make to understanding children’s human rights, with a focus on addressing childhood poverty. We reflect upon the relevance of our respective disciplines for thinking about children’s human rights and explore some of the tensions as well as complementarities between psychology and sociology. Beginning with a brief history of children’s rights, we explain the basics of the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child and introduce the theoretical framework of “living rights, social justice and translations.” Second, we address what our differing disciplines offer to the study and advancement of children’s rights, starting with psychology before outlining a sociological approach and how perspectives from both disciplines enrich an understanding of living rights. Our third section takes childhood poverty as an example to explore rights questions – defining child poverty as multidimensional and drawing on research from our respective fields. Fourth, we link children’s rights and poverty by focusing on a topic of vital importance to children’s well-being, that of violence. We conclude by summarizing the contributions that developmental psychology and sociology can make to understanding and translating children’s rights.
The advent of genome wide association studies have resulted in the identification of a number of novel genetic loci for schizophrenia and related disorders. Understanding the functional impact of these variants on brain structure and function is crucial to understand their role in disease pathology. We presents data based on our genetic and neuropsychological assessment of almost 700 patients and healthy participants for a number of these variants and replication of our findings in independent samples of almost 1500 cases and controls. Specifically, we will use this data to suggest that the risk associated with some genetics variants (e.g. NOS1) is being mediated by an influence on variation in intelligence and other cognitive phenotypes, while other risk variants (e.g. ZNF804A) delineate illness subtypes in which cognitive deficits are a less prominent feature.
Rats are social animals that produce high-frequency whistles said to reflect their underlying affective state. Injecting rats with a glutamate agonist (domoic acid) at a sensitive period of brain development, models aspects of schizophrenia. This is known as the neonatal DOM model.
We investigated whether DOM rats display altered social behaviour – as seen in patients with schizophrenia – using their high-frequency whistles as a proxy for the emotional valence of social situations.
We used 19 male Sprague Dawley rats, injected with either a low-dose of domoic acid or saline at postnatal days 8 to 14. The social behaviour of the rats was investigated at four levels:
– anticipation of social interaction;
– dyadic encounter;
– three-chamber test;
Tests were carried out at postnatal days 34 to 40 and 50 to 56. Rat whistles were recorded on all days of testing.
The interest in rat whistles as a supplement to traditional behavioural tests has increased. New software allows for detailed qualitative analysis of the whistle subtypes and thus new complexity to their interpretation. This study can help unravel information encoded in the whistles and shed light on the social behaviour of the DOM rat thus investigating it is applicability as a model of schizophrenia.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Although many people believe that women are disadvantaged by the electoral process, recent research shows women generally do at least as well as men when they run for office. We investigate the gender dynamics of state supreme court elections. We find evidence that women do enjoy an electoral advantage when they run for judicial office. However, unlike previous work, we find that this advantage is highly contingent on the electoral context. Using an original dataset of competitive judicial elections from 1998 to 2014, we find that women only have a significant vote share advantage when they run as a challenger against a sitting incumbent. The advantage does not apply to women as incumbents or in open seat elections. These findings raise important questions about the interplay of institutional barriers and election aversion for the advancement of women in electoral judicial politics.
Sample preparation techniques for radiocarbon analysis of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in freshwater, as well as CO2 and CH4 in gas mixtures are presented. Focused efforts have been on developing a robust and low-background wet oxidation extraction method for DOC in freshwater, following routine methods developed for stable carbon isotope analysis and adapted for radiocarbon (14C) analysis. DIC (by acidification) and DOC (by wet oxidation) are converted to CO2 in pre-baked septum-fitted borosilicate bottles, where the resulting CO2 is extracted from the dissolved and headspace portions on a low-flow He-carrier flow-through system interfaced to a vacuum extraction line. A peripheral CH4 extraction line interfaces to the flow line to separate CH4 from environmental samples following the methods of Pack et al. 2015. High sample throughput and low blanks are achievable with this method. DIC and DOC blanks are consistently <0.7 pMC, while CO2 and CH4 blanks are typically <0.1 pMC.