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Designing engineering components that make optimal use of materials requires consideration of the nonlinear static and dynamic characteristics associated with both manufacturing and working environments. The modeling of these characteristics can only be done through numerical formulation and simulation, which requires an understanding of both the theoretical background and associated computer solution techniques. By presenting nonlinear solid mechanics, dynamic conservation laws and principles, and the associated finite element techniques together, the authors provide in this second book a unified treatment of the dynamic simulation of nonlinear solids. Alongside a number of worked examples and exercises are user instructions, program descriptions, and examples for two MATLAB computer implementations for which source codes are available online. While this book is designed to complement postgraduate courses, it is also relevant to those in industry requiring an appreciation of the way their computer simulation programs work.
Dryocosmus kuriphilus (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) is a global invasive gall wasp and a pest of chestnuts (Castanea spp.). A study of the Chalcidoidea parasitoid community of D. kuriphilus was undertaken over two years, from March 2017 to March 2019, at 15 sites in south and northwest Spain (Málaga and Galicia regions). More than 18,000 galls were collected, and 1153 parasitoids belonging to 22 species of seven chalcidoid families, plus two individuals of an inquiline Cynipidae, Synergus facialis, emerged. Richness was higher in the Málaga region, with 20 species, while 17 parasitoids and one inquiline were identified in Galicia. The parasitism rate of native chalcid parasitoid species in both regions was low. Eupelmus urozonus and Mesopolobus lichtensteini were the most abundant native species. Mesopolobus tibialis was a dominant species in south Spain, while Ormyrus pomaceus was a dominant species in northwest Spain. Our results revealed the existence of a sub-community of univoltine, probably host specialized, parasitoids in south Spain, which overwinter in galls, exhibiting a similar life cycle to Torymus sinensis. These species were Torymus notatus, Aulogymnus bicolor, Aulogymnus obscuripes and Aulogymnus balani. Data on the recovery of T. sinensis after release in the south Spain region show it to be well established, but its numbers are still low in northwest Spain.
During the first months of the severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) epidemic in 2020, Spain implemented an initial lockdown period on 15 March followed by a strengthened lockdown period on 30 March when only essential workers continued to commute to work. However, little is known about the epidemic dynamics in different age groups during these periods.
We used the daily number of coronavirus 2019 cases (by date of symptom onset) reported to the National Epidemiological Surveillance Network among individuals aged 15–19 years through 65–69 years. For each age group g, we computed the proportion PrE(g) of individuals in age group g among all reported cases aged 15–69 years during the pre-lockdown period (1−10 March 2020) and the corresponding proportion PrL(g) during two lockdown periods (initial: 25 March−3 April; strengthened: 8–17 April 2020). For each lockdown period, we computed the proportion ratios PR(g) = PrL(g)/PrE(g). For each pair of age groups g1, g2, PR(g1)>PR(g2) implies a relative increase in the incidence of detected SARS-CoV-2 infection in the age group g1 compared with g2 for the lockdown period vs. the pre-lockdown period.
For the initial lockdown period, the highest PR values were in age groups 50–54 years (PR = 1.21; 95% CI: 1.12,1.30) and 55–59 years (PR = 1.19; 1.11,1.27). For the second lockdown period, the highest PR values were in age groups 15–19 years (PR = 1.26; 0.95,1.68) and 50–54 years (PR = 1.20; 1.09,1.31).
Our results suggest that different outbreak control measures led to different changes in the relative incidence by age group. During the initial lockdown period, when non-essential work was allowed, individuals aged 40–64 years, particularly those aged 50–59 years, had a higher relative incidence compared with the pre-lockdown period. Younger adults/older adolescents had an increased relative incidence during the later, strengthened lockdown. The role of different age groups during the epidemic should be considered when implementing future mitigation efforts.
The prevalence of cerebro-vascular disease in patients with Alzheimer disease varies widely among studies depending on being autopsy-based or clinical-pathology or neuro-image based.
AD+CVD patients may show some degree of variability on the diagnoses and therapeutic approach across different clinical specialists.
To observe potential differences among physicians on the diagnosis and therapeutic approach of patients with AD+CVD.
This was a cross-sectional, multi-center, nation-wide study performed in Spain.
The investigators participants worked in three clinical specialties: neurologists, geriatricians and psychiatrists.
A total of 107 investigators were involved in this study. Three out of four doctors (76%) were neurologists (81), 14% were geriatricians (15), and 8.4% were psychiatrists (9). The investigators included 720 patients diagnosed with AD+CVD.
Neuro-image techniques (NIT) and medical history (MH) were the most common methods of diagnosis. The scanner was performed in 69% AD+CVD patients, and magnetic resonance image was performed in 45%.
There were significant differences among physicians on the frequency of use of MH (98% of neurologists/geriatricians used MH vs. 85% of psychiatrists (p<0,04)), and also on the use of NIT (99% of neurologists/geriatricians vs. 84% of psychiatrists (p<0,0001)).
Galantamine (60%) and memantine+donepezil (19%)were the most common prescribed drugs by psychiatrists.
Psychiatrists used primarily MH to diagnose patients with AD+CVD, while neurologists used more frequently NIT. Geriatricians used both methods and vascular risk factors for the diagnosis of AD+CVD.
More than a half of physicians used galantamine as first-election treatment in patients with AD+CVD.