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Data from a national survey of 348 U.S. sports field managers were used to examine the effects of participation in Cooperative Extension events on the adoption of turfgrass weed management practices. Of the respondents, 94% attended at least one event in the previous three years. Of this 94%, 97% reported adopting at least one practice as a result of knowledge gained at an Extension turfgrass event. Half of the respondents adopted four or more practices; a third adopted five or more practices. Non-chemical, cultural practices were the most-adopted practices (65% of respondents). Multiple regression analysis was used to examine factors explaining practice adoption and Extension event attendance. Compared to attending one event, attending three events increased total adoption by an average of one practice. Attending four or more events increased total adoption by two practices. Attending four or more events (compared to one event) increased the odds of adopting six individual practices by 3- to 6-fold, depending on the practice. This suggests practice adoption could be enhanced by encouraging repeat attendance among past Extension event attendees. Manager experience was a statistically significant predictor of the number of Extension events attended, but a poor direct predictor of practice adoption. Experience does not appear to increase adoption directly, but indirectly, via its impact on Extension event attendance. In addition to questions about weed management generally, the survey asked questions about annual bluegrass management, specifically. Respondents were asked to rank seven sources of information for their helpfulness in managing annual bluegrass. There was no single dominant information source, but Extension was ranked as the most helpful more than any other source (by 22% of the respondents) and was ranked among the top three by 53%, closely behind field representative/local distributor sources at 54%.
Survey experiments that investigate how voting procedures affect voting behavior and election outcomes use hypothetical questions and non-representative samples. We present here the results of a novel survey experiment that addresses both concerns. First, the winning party in our experiment receives a donation to its campaign funds inducing real consequences for voting. Second, we run an online experiment with a Dutch national representative sample (N = 1240). Our results validate previous findings using a representative sample, in particular that approval voting leads to a higher concentration in votes for smaller parties and strengthens centrist parties in comparison to plurality voting. Importantly, our results suggest that voting behavior is not affected by voting incentives and can be equally reliably elicited with hypothetical questions.
We present the third data release from the Parkes Pulsar Timing Array (PPTA) project. The release contains observations of 32 pulsars obtained using the 64-m Parkes “Murriyang” radio telescope. The data span is up to 18 years with a typical cadence of 3 weeks. This data release is formed by combining an updated version of our second data release with ∼ 3 years of more recent data primarily obtained using an ultra-wide-bandwidth receiver system that operates between 704 and 4032 MHz. We provide calibrated pulse profiles, flux-density dynamic spectra, pulse times of arrival, and initial pulsar timing models. We describe methods for processing such wide-bandwidth observations, and compare this data release with our previous release.
The success of agriculture relies on healthy bees to pollinate crops. Commercially managed pollinators are often kept under temperature-controlled conditions to better control development and optimize field performance. One such pollinator, the alfalfa leafcutting bee, Megachile rotundata, is the most widely used solitary bee in agriculture. Problematically, very little is known about the thermal physiology of M. rotundata or the consequences of artificial thermal regimes used in commercial management practices. Therefore, we took a broad look at the thermal performance of M. rotundata across development and the effects of commonly used commercial thermal regimes on adult bee physiology. After the termination of diapause, we hypothesized thermal sensitivity would vary across pupal metamorphosis. Our data show that bees in the post-diapause quiescent stage were more tolerant of low temperatures compared to bees in active development. We found that commercial practices applied during development decrease the likelihood of a bee recovering from another bout of thermal stress in adulthood, thereby decreasing their resilience. Lastly, commercial regimes applied during development affected the number of days to adult emergence, but the time of day that adults emerged was unaffected. Our data demonstrate the complex interactions between bee development and thermal regimes used in management. This knowledge can help improve the commercial management of these bees by optimizing the thermal regimes used and the timing of their application to alleviate negative downstream effects on adult performance.
Transposition of great arteries with intact ventricular septum and left ventricular outflow tract obstruction (TGA + IVS + LVOTO) is uncommon. We reviewed operations performed in patients with TGA + IVS + LVOTO in the European Congenital Heart Surgeons Association Congenital Database (ECHSA-CD).
All 109 patients with a diagnosis of TGA + IVS + LVOTO in ECHSA-CD who underwent cardiac surgery during a 21-year period (01/2000-02/2021, inclusive) were included. Preoperative variables, operative data, and postoperative outcomes were collected.
These 109 patients underwent 176 operations, including 37 (21.0%) arterial switch operations (ASO), 26 (14.2%) modified Blalock-Taussig-Thomas shunts (MBTTS), 11 (6.2%) Rastelli operations, and 13 (7.3%) other palliative operations (8 superior cavopulmonary anastomosis[es], 4 Fontan, and 1 other palliative procedure). Of 37 patients undergoing ASO, 22 had a concomitant procedure.
There were 68 (38.6%) reoperations, including 11 pacemaker procedures and 8 conduit operations. After a systemic-to-pulmonary artery shunt, reoperations included shunt reoperation (n = 4), Rastelli (n = 4), and superior cavopulmonary anastomosis (n = 3).
Overall Operative Mortality was 8.2% (9 deaths), including three following ASO, two following “Nikaidoh, Kawashima, or LV-PA conduit” procedures, and two following Rastelli. Postoperative complications occurred after 36 operations (20.4%). The most common complications were delayed sternal closure (n = 11), postoperative respiratory insufficiency requiring mechanical ventilation >7 days (n = 9), and renal failure requiring temporary dialysis (n = 8).
TGA + IVS + LVOTO is rare (109 patients in ECHSA-CD over 21 years). ASO, MBTTS, and Rastelli are the most common operations performed for TGA + IVS + LVOTO. Larger international studies with long-term follow-up are needed to better define the anatomy of the LVOTO and to determine the optimal surgical strategy.
To describe the feasibility, acceptability and results of Strong Families Start at Home, a 6-month pilot trial of a home-based food parenting/nutrition intervention.
Pilot randomised controlled trial.
Participants received six visits with a community health worker trained in motivational interviewing (three home visits, three phone calls); an in-home cooking or reading activity; personalised feedback on a recorded family meal or reading activity; text messages and tailored printed materials.
Parents and their 2–5-year-old child were randomised into intervention (responsive food parenting practices/nutrition) or control (reading readiness) groups.
Parents (n 63) were mostly mothers (90 %), Hispanic/Latinx (87 %), born outside the USA (62 %), with household incomes <$25 k (54 %). Despite delivery during COVID-19, 63 % of dyads were retained at 6 months. The intervention was delivered with high fidelity. All parents in the intervention group (n 24) expressed high levels of satisfaction with the intervention, which produced positive treatment effects for whole and total fruit component Healthy Eating Index-2015 scores (point estimate (PE) = 2·14, 95 % CI (0·17, 1·48); PE = 1·71, 95 % CI (0·16, 1·47), respectively) and negative treatment effects for sodium (PE = -2·09, 95 % CI (−1·35, −0·04)). Positive treatment effects also resulted for the following food parenting practices: regular timing of meals and snacks (PE = 1·08, 95 % CI (0·61, 2·00)), reducing distractions during mealtimes (PE = -0·79, 95 % CI (−1·52, −0·19)), using food as a reward (PE = -0·54, 95 % CI (−1·35, −0·04)) and providing a supportive meal environment (PE = 0·73, 95 % CI (0·18, 1·51)).
Given the continued disparities in diet quality among low-income and diverse families, continued efforts to improve child diet quality in fully powered intervention trials are needed.
Recent research has highlighted a tendency for more rational and deliberative decision-making in individuals with autism. We tested this hypothesis by using eye-tracking to investigate the information processing strategies that underpin multi-attribute choice in a sample of adults diagnosed with autism spectrum condition. We found that, as the number of attributes defining each option increased, autistic decision-makers were speedier, examined less of the available information, and spent a greater proportion of their time examining the option they eventually chose. Rather than indicating a more deliberative style, our results are consistent with a tendency for individuals with autism to narrow down the decision-space more quickly than does the neurotypical population.
Recent research has shown that risk and reward are positively correlated in many environments, and that people have internalized this association as a “risk-reward heuristic”: when making choices based on incomplete information, people infer probabilities from payoffs and vice-versa, and these inferences shape their decisions. We extend this work by examining people’s expectations about another fundamental trade-off — that between monetary reward and delay. In 2 experiments (total N = 670), we adapted a paradigm previously used to demonstrate the risk-reward heuristic. We presented participants with intertemporal choice tasks in which either the delayed reward or the length of the delay was obscured. Participants inferred larger rewards for longer stated delays, and longer delays for larger stated rewards; these inferences also predicted people’s willingness to take the delayed option. In exploratory analyses, we found that older participants inferred longer delays and smaller rewards than did younger ones. All of these results replicated in 2 large-scale pre-registered studies with participants from a different population (total N = 2138). Our results suggest that people expect intertemporal choice tasks to offer a trade-off between delay and reward, and differ in their expectations about this trade-off. This “delay-reward heuristic” offers a new perspective on existing models of intertemporal choice and provides new insights into unexplained and systematic individual differences in the willingness to delay gratification.
In motor lotteries the probability of success is inherent in a person’s ability to make a speeded pointing movement. By contrast, in traditional economic lotteries, the probability of success is explicitly stated. Decision making with economic lotteries has revealed many violations of rational decision making models. However, with motor lotteries people’s performance is often near optimal, and is well described by statistical decision theory. We report the results of an experiment testing whether motor planning decisions exhibit the attraction effect, a well-known axiomatic violation of some rational decision models. The effect occurs when changing the composition of a choice set alters preferences between its members. We provide the first demonstration that people do exhibit the attraction effect when choosing between motor lotteries. We also found that people exhibited a similar sized attraction effect in motor and traditional economic paradigms. People’s near-optimal performance with motor lotteries is characterized by the efficiency of their decisions. In attraction effect experiments performance is instead characterized by the violation of an axiom. We discuss the extent that axiomatic and efficiency measures can provide insight in assessing the rationality of decision making.
When choosing between immediate and future rewards, how do people deal with uncertainty about the value of the future outcome or the delay until its occurrence? Skylark et al. (2020) suggested that people employ a delay-reward heuristic: the inferred value of an ambiguous future reward is a function of the stated delay, and vice-versa. The present paper investigates the role of this heuristic in choice behaviour. In Studies 1a–2b, participants inferred the value of an ambiguous future reward or delay before the true value was revealed and a choice made. Preference for the future option was predicted by the discrepancy between the estimated and true values: the more pleasantly surprising the delayed option, the greater the willingness to choose it. Studies 3a–3c examined the association between inference and preference when the ambiguous values remained unknown. As predicted by the use of a delay-reward heuristic, inferred delays and rewards were positively related to stated rewards and delays, respectively. More importantly, choices were associated with inferred rewards and, in some circumstances, delays. Critically, estimates and choices were both order-dependent: when estimates preceded choices, estimates were more optimistic (people inferred smaller delays and larger rewards) and were subsequently more likely to choose the delayed option than when choices were made before estimates. These order effects argue against a simple model in which people deal with ambiguity by first estimating the unknown value and then using their estimate as the basis for decision. Rather, it seems that inferences are partly constructed from choices, and the role of inference in choice depends on whether an explicit estimate is made prior to choosing. Finally, we also find that inferences about ambiguous delays depend on whether the estimate has to be made in “days” or in a self-selected temporal unit, and replicate previous findings that older participants make more pessimistic inferences than younger ones. We discuss the implications and possible mechanisms for these findings.
The Lower Pleistocene Karnezeika locality, lies in the Peloponnese, southern Greece, and its fauna corresponds to the Middle Villafranchian biochronological unit (MN17). The recovered mammal assemblage includes, among others, a few remains of a large Cercopithecid. Herein, we describe this material, including an upper second molar, a partially preserved proximal radius and, possibly, an upper first incisor. The teeth show advanced stages of wear but retain their typical papionin characters, such as a strong lingual cleft and four bilophodont cusps in the molar. The general morphology and wear pattern of the teeth rules out the possibility that the remains belong to the genus Theropithecus, while the general size of the corresponding material excludes the possibility of a Macaca representative as well. On the contrary, the studied material better fits the size range of Paradolichopithecus. Even though this genus is likely represented in the Villafranchian of Europe by a single species, Par. arvernensis, the scarcity of the studied material imposes reservations and thus the Karnezeika papionin is referred at the moment to cf. Paradolichopithecus sp. As in the rest of Europe, the Paradolichopithecus record is rare in Greece, having been found in only two localities, Vatera and Dafnero. Despite its scarcity, the new material from Karnezeika indicates a wide distribution of this important taxon in the Greek peninsula.
The USA has higher rates of preterm birth and incarceration than any other developed nation, with rates of both being highest in Southern states and among Black Americans, potentially due to rurality and socioeconomic factors. To test our hypothesis that prior-year county-level rates of jail admission, economic distress, and rurality were positively associated with premature birth rates in the county of delivery in 2019 and that the strength of these associations is greater for Black women than for White or Hispanic women, we merged five datasets to perform multivariable analysis of data from 766 counties across 12 Southern/rural states.
We used multivariable linear regression to model the percentage of babies born premature, stratified by Black (Model 1), Hispanic (Model 2), and White (Model 3) mothers. Each model included all three independent variables of interest measured using data from the Vera Institute, Distressed Communities Index, and Index of Relative Rurality.
In fully fitted stratified models, economic distress was positively associated with premature births among Black (F = 33.81, p < 0.0001) and White (F = 26.50, p < 0.0001) mothers. Rurality was associated with premature births among White mothers (F = 20.02, p < 0.0001). Jail admission rate was not associated with premature births among any racial group, and none of the study variables were associated with premature births among Hispanic mothers.
Understanding the connections between preterm birth and enduring structural inequities is a necessary scientific endeavor to advance to later translational stages in health-disparities research
To describe healthcare provider, veteran, and organizational barriers to, challenges to, and facilitators of implementation of the oral care Hospital-Acquired Pneumonia Prevention by Engaging Nurses (HAPPEN) initiative to prevent non–ventilator-associated hospital-acquired pneumonia (NV-HAP).
Concurrent mixed methods. Qualitative interviews of staff and patients were conducted in addition to a larger survey of VA employees regarding implementation.
Medical surgical or extended care units in 6 high-complexity (01a–c) VA hospitals.
Between January 2020 and February 2021, we interviewed 7 staff and 7 veterans, and we received survey responses from 91 staff.
Provide education, support, and oral care supplies to prevent NV-HAP.
Barriers to HAPPEN implementation and tracking at the pilot sites included maintaining oral care supplies and completion of oral care documentation. Facilitators for HAPPEN implementation included development of supportive formal and informal nurse leaders, staff engagement, and shared beliefs in the importance of care quality and infection prevention. Nurses worked together as a team to provide consistent oral care. Oral care was viewed as an essential infection control practice (not just “a task”) and was considered part of the “culture” and “mission” in caring for veterans.
Nurse leaders and direct-care staff were engaged throughout HAPPEN implementation, and most reported feeling supported and well prepared as they walked through the steps. Veterans reported positive experiences and increased knowledge about prevention of pneumonia. Lessons learned included building a community of practice and sharing expertise, which led to the successful replication of the HAPPEN initiative nationwide, improving patient safety and care quality and influencing health policy.
We investigated the efficacy and complication profile of intranasal dexmedetomidine for transthoracic echocardiography sedation in patients with single ventricle physiology and shunt-dependent pulmonary blood flow during the high-risk interstage period.
A single-centre, retrospective review identified interstage infants who received dexmedetomidine for echocardiography sedation. Baseline and procedural vitals were reported. Significant adverse events related to sedation were defined as an escalation in care or need for any additional/increased inotropic support to maintain pre-procedural haemodynamics. Minor adverse events were defined as changes from baseline haemodynamics that resolved without intervention. To assess whether sedation was adequate, echocardiogram reports were reviewed for completeness.
From September to December 2020, five interstage patients (age 29–69 days) were sedated with 3 mcg/kg intranasal dexmedetomidine. The median sedation onset time and duration time was 24 minutes (range 12–43 minutes) and 60 minutes (range 33–60 minutes), respectively. Sedation was deemed adequate in all patients as complete echocardiograms were accomplished without a rescue dose. When compared to baseline, three (60%) patients had a >10% reduction in heart rate, one (20%) patient had a >10% reduction in oxygen saturations, and one (20%) patient had a >30% decrease in blood pressure. Amongst all patients, no significant complications occurred and haemodynamic changes from baseline did not result in need for intervention or interruption of study.
Intranasal dexmedetomidine may be a reasonable option for echocardiography sedation in infants with shunt-dependent single ventricle heart disease, and further investigation is warranted to ensure efficacy and safety in an outpatient setting.
To evaluate prevalence and risk factors of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression among directly exposed (DE) and indirectly or nonexposed (INE) populations in Sri Lanka 8 y after the Indian Ocean Tsunami in 2004.
Population-based structured survey study was conducted among Sri Lankan adults living in 5 coastal districts, Hamboantha, Matara, Galle, Kalutara, and Colombo in 2012-2013. A total of 430 individuals, 325 in DE, 105 in INE, participated in the survey. DE and INE groups were compared for demographics and outcomes. Bivariate and multiple logistic regressions with backward selection were used to identify risk factors for partial PTSD and depression.
The prevalence of PTSD, partial PTSD and depression were 2.8%, 10.5%, and 18.8% in DE group, respectively. In multivariable analyses tsunami exposure, female gender, subjective physical health before the tsunami, previous trauma, and depression were significantly associated with partial PTSD. Female gender, high frequency of religious activity, previous trauma, social support, and PTSD were significantly associated with depression.
The psychological impacts of the tsunami did wane over time, but still present at lower rate even in 8 y. It is important to address these lingering sequelae and expand access to at risk individuals.
COVID-19 has caused tremendous death and suffering since it first emerged in 2019. Soon after its emergence, models were developed to help predict the course of various disease metrics, and these models have been relied upon to help guide public health policy.
Here we present a method called COVIDNearTerm to “forecast” hospitalizations in the short term, two to four weeks from the time of prediction. COVIDNearTerm is based on an autoregressive model and utilizes a parametric bootstrap approach to make predictions. It is easy to use as it requires only previous hospitalization data, and there is an open-source R package that implements the algorithm. We evaluated COVIDNearTerm on San Francisco Bay Area hospitalizations and compared it to models from the California COVID Assessment Tool (CalCAT).
We found that COVIDNearTerm predictions were more accurate than the CalCAT ensemble predictions for all comparisons and any CalCAT component for a majority of comparisons. For instance, at the county level our 14-day hospitalization median absolute percentage errors ranged from 16 to 36%. For those same comparisons, the CalCAT ensemble errors were between 30 and 59%.
COVIDNearTerm is a simple and useful tool for predicting near-term COVID-19 hospitalizations.
OBJECTIVES/GOALS: Neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) is an acute neurologic syndrome where decreased blood flow and oxygen to the brain causes acute and chronic brain dysfunction. The only proven neuroprotective intervention for HIE is hypothermia treatment started within 6 hours of birth and 50% of survivors have long-term deficits. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Pre-clinical adult stroke studies demonstrated that vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) has anti-inflammatory effects and attenuates brain damage. Transcutaneous auricular VNS (taVNS) is safe and feasible in infants and may improve the motor skill of bottle feeding. We hypothesize that a combined hypothermia-taVNS treatment shortly after HIE birth will have neuroprotective effects, improve motor function, attenuate infarct volume inflammation compared to hypothermia alone. The HIE model includes ligation of the right common carotid artery in postnatal day 7 (P7) rats followed by 90min hypoxia (8% oxygen) and 2hr hypothermia. taVNS or sham taVNS was administered using a bipolar electrode placed on the auricular concha region for 30min, [30sec trains, 0.5msec duration, 20Hz frequency, followed by 4.5min breaks] RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Experimental groups include +HIE/+taVNS, +HIE/-taVNS, and -HIE/-taVNS. To assess motor function, grasping reflex and forelimb grip strength tasks were assessed prior to surgery through P10. Infarct volume was assessed at 72h after injury by staining coronal sections with cresyl-violet. Thirty-four rat pups underwent surgery with an 8.82% mortality rate. taVNS was well tolerated by the P7 rats when delivered below perceptual threshold (0.4-1.1mA). There was no difference in elementary motor function or infarct volume between any group. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Future studies will include 2.5hr hypoxia for a more severe brain injury and a -HIE/+taVNS control group. These initial pre-clinical studies in neonates are important in determining whether taVNS may translate as a treatment to improve outcomes after neonatal HIE.