To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Between 19 May and 12 June 2020, employees of the UZ Brussel were recruited in this study aiming to document the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) seroprevalence, to investigate the potential work-related risk factors for SARS-CoV-2 infection and to estimate the proportion of asymptomatic infections. In total, 2662 participants were included of whom 7.4% had immunoglobulin G antibodies against SARS-CoV-2. Of the participants reporting a positive polymerase chain reaction for SARS-CoV-2, 89% had antibodies at the time of blood sampling. Eleven per cent of the antibody positive participants reported no recent symptoms suggestive of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Participants reporting fever, chest pain and/or anosmia/ageusia were significantly more frequently associated with the presence of antibodies against SARS-CoV-2. The presence of antibodies was highest in the group that had had contact with COVID-19-infected individuals outside the hospital with or without using appropriate personnel protective equipment (PPE) (P < 0.001). Inside the hospital, a statistically significant difference was observed for the employees considered as low-risk exposure compared to the intermediate-risk exposure group (P = 0.005) as well as the high-risk exposure group compared to the intermediate exposure risk group (P < 0.001). These findings highlight the importance of using correct PPE.
The first demonstration of laser action in ruby was made in 1960 by T. H. Maiman of Hughes Research Laboratories, USA. Many laboratories worldwide began the search for lasers using different materials, operating at different wavelengths. In the UK, academia, industry and the central laboratories took up the challenge from the earliest days to develop these systems for a broad range of applications. This historical review looks at the contribution the UK has made to the advancement of the technology, the development of systems and components and their exploitation over the last 60 years.
Zircon crystals from diamondiferous kyanite gneisses of the Barchi-Kol area (Kokchetav massif, Northern Kazakhstan) have been investigated by a combined application of cathodoluminescence (CL), Raman spectroscopy and electron probe microanalysis (EPMA). The zircon crystals exhibit up to four distinct domains characterised by significantly different CL signatures and parameters of the ν3(SiO4) (1008 cm–1) Raman band (i.e. full width at half maximum, position and intensity). Extremely metamict zircon cores (Domain I) host inclusions of low-pressure minerals (quartz and graphite) and the outer mantles (Domain III) are populated by ultrahigh-pressure relicts (diamond and coesite), whereas inner mantles (Domain II) and overgrowth rim zones (Domain IV) are inclusion free. Both the zircon cores and rims have very low Ti concentrations, implying formation temperatures below 760°C. The Ti content in the inner mantles (up to 40 ppm) is indicative of temperatures in the 760–880°C range. The temperature estimates for the outer mantles are 900–940°C, indicating a pronounced overlap with the peak metamorphic values yielded by the Zr-in-rutile geothermometer for the same rocks (910–950°C). The internal textures of the zircons and the occurrence of index minerals within the distinct domains allow us to unravel the stages of the complex metamorphic history recorded in the zircon. Our data show that the zircon cores are inherited seeds of pre-metamorphic (magmatic?) origin, the inner mantles were formed on the prograde metamorphic stage, the outer mantles record ultrahigh-pressure metamorphism and the outermost rims mark the retrograde metamorphic stage. The observed zircon internal textures are thus clearly correlated with distinct growth events, and in some examples reflect a major part of the metamorphic history. It is concluded that the combined application of the CL, Raman spectroscopy and EPMA techniques to zircon offers significant potential for deciphering the metamorphic evolution of deeply-subducted rocks.
The study examined the perception of facial expressions of different emotional intensities in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) subtypes. Results showed that the High Risk Assessment and Checking subtype was more sensitive in perceiving the emotions fear and happiness. This suggests that altered affective processing may underlie the clinical manifestation of OCD.
currently, most of the classification studies of psychosis focused on chronic patients and employed single machine learning approaches. To overcome these limitations, we here compare, to our best knowledge for the first time, different classification methods of First Episode Psychosis (FEP) using multimodal imaging data exploited on several cortical and subcortical structures and white matter fiber bundles.
23 FEP patients and 23 age-, gender-, and race-matched healthy participants were included in the study. An innovative multivariate approach based on Multiple Kernel Learning (MKL) methods was implemented on structural MRI (sMRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI).
MKL provides the best classification performances in comparison with the more widely used Support Vector Machine, enabling the definition of a reliable automatic decisional system based on the integration of multimodal imaging information. Our results show a discrimination accuracy greater than 90% between healthy subjects and patients with FEP. Regions with an accuracy greater than 70% on different imaging sources and measures were middle and superior frontal gyrus, parahippocampal gyrus, uncinate fascicles and cingulum.
this study shows that multivariate machine learning approaches integrating multimodal and multisource imaging data can classify FEP patients with high accuracy. Interestingly, specific grey matter structures and white matter bundles reach high classification reliability when using different imaging modalities and indices, potentially outlining a prefronto-limbic network impaired in FEP with particular regard to the right hemisphere.
Mount Oku, in the Northwest Region of Cameroon, is known for its rodent diversity. It is located in an area with a high human population density (up to 400/km2), resulting in intense pressure on natural resources. Threats to biodiversity include overgrazing by cattle and goats in grassland areas and montane forests, firewood harvesting, agriculture, bee keeping, debarking of Prunus trees for medicinal uses, and bushmeat hunting. We used data from interviews with 106 local hunters to provide insights into rodent trapping in Oku village. Trapping took place primarily in closed canopy forest. The majority of hunters (88.8%) set at least 100 traps per week, with a mean of 38 rodents trapped per hunter per week. The two most captured species were the Vulnerable Hartwig's praomys Praomys hartwigi and the Endangered Mount Oku rat Lamottemys okuensis, both of which have declining populations. Rodents were harvested mainly for household consumption and/or local trade, but 65.1% of interviewees also used P. hartwigi for traditional medicine. Our findings suggest that rodent trapping in Oku village requires conservation attention, and that further quantitative studies are needed to assess its sustainability.
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a highly disabling condition, with frequent early onset. Adult/adolescent OCD has been extensively investigated, but little is known about prevalence and clinical characterization of geriatric patients with OCD (G-OCD = 65 years). The present study aimed to assess prevalence of G-OCD and associated socio-demographic and clinical correlates in a large international sample.
Data from 416 outpatients, participating in the ICOCS network, were assessed and categorized into 2 groups, age < vs = 65 years, and then divided on the basis of the median age of the sample (age < vs = 42 years). Socio-demographic and clinical variables were compared between groups (Pearson Chi-squared and t tests).
G-OCD compared with younger patients represented a significant minority of the sample (6% vs 94%, P < .001), showing a significantly later age at onset (29.4 ± 15.1 vs 18.7 ± 9.2 years, P < .001), a more frequent adult onset (75% vs 41.1%, P < .001) and a less frequent use of cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) (20.8% vs 41.8%, P < .05). Female gender was more represented in G-OCD patients, though not at a statistically significant level (75% vs 56.4%, P = .07). When the whole sample was divided on the basis of the median age, previous results were confirmed for older patients, including a significantly higher presence of women (52.1% vs 63.1%, P < .05).
G-OCD compared with younger patients represented a small minority of the sample and showed later age at onset, more frequent adult onset and lower CBT use. Age at onset may influence course and overall management of OCD, with additional investigation needed.
We have observed the G23 field of the Galaxy AndMass Assembly (GAMA) survey using the Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder (ASKAP) in its commissioning phase to validate the performance of the telescope and to characterise the detected galaxy populations. This observation covers ~48 deg2 with synthesised beam of 32.7 arcsec by 17.8 arcsec at 936MHz, and ~39 deg2 with synthesised beam of 15.8 arcsec by 12.0 arcsec at 1320MHz. At both frequencies, the root-mean-square (r.m.s.) noise is ~0.1 mJy/beam. We combine these radio observations with the GAMA galaxy data, which includes spectroscopy of galaxies that are i-band selected with a magnitude limit of 19.2. Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) infrared (IR) photometry is used to determine which galaxies host an active galactic nucleus (AGN). In properties including source counts, mass distributions, and IR versus radio luminosity relation, the ASKAP-detected radio sources behave as expected. Radio galaxies have higher stellar mass and luminosity in IR, optical, and UV than other galaxies. We apply optical and IR AGN diagnostics and find that they disagree for ~30% of the galaxies in our sample. We suggest possible causes for the disagreement. Some cases can be explained by optical extinction of the AGN, but for more than half of the cases we do not find a clear explanation. Radio sources aremore likely (~6%) to have an AGN than radio quiet galaxies (~1%), but the majority of AGN are not detected in radio at this sensitivity.
Since the introduction of laser-assisted atom probe, analysis of nonconductive materials by atom probe tomography (APT) has become more routine. To obtain high-quality data, a number of acquisition variables needs to be optimized for the material of interest, and for the specific question being addressed. Here, the rutile (TiO2) reference material ‘Windmill Hill Quartzite,’ used for secondary ion mass spectrometry U–Pb dating and laser-ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, was analyzed by laser-assisted APT to constrain optimal running conditions. Changes in acquisition parameters such as laser energy and detection rate are evaluated in terms of their effect on background noise, ionization state, hit-multiplicity, and thermal tails. Higher laser energy results in the formation of more complex molecular ions and affects the ionization charge state. At lower energies, background noise and hit-multiplicity increase, but thermal tails shorten. There are also correlations between the acquisition voltage and several of these metrics, which remain to be fully understood. The results observed when varying the acquisition parameters will be discussed in detail in the context of utilizing APT analysis of rutile within geology.
Light sheet fluorescence microscopy (LSFM) allows for high-resolution three-dimensional imaging with minimal photo-damage. By viewing the sample from different directions, different regions of large specimens can be imaged optimally. Moreover, owing to their good spatial resolution and high signal-to-noise ratio, LSFM data are well suited for image deconvolution. Here we present the Huygens Fusion and Deconvolution Wizard, a unique integrated solution for restoring LSFM images, and show that improvements in signal and resolution of 1.5 times and higher are feasible.
Ice-wedge activity can be used to reconstruct past environmental conditions. We investigated the moisture source and timing of ice-wedge formation on the Blackstone Plateau. A section of permafrost exposed ice wedges that developed at two distinct depths: the first set formed syngenetically and penetrated alluvial silts from the top of permafrost; the second set, truncated by an erosional or thaw contact, was found solely in icy muddy gravels (>3.1 m depth). The δ18O and D-excess records of the ice wedges suggest that they formed from freezing of snow meltwater whose isotopic composition evolved during meltout. The 14CDOC results suggest that climate was favorable to ice-wedge growth between 32,000–30,000 and 14,000–12,500 cal yr BP, but there was likely a hiatus during the last glacial maximum due to climate being too dry. During the early to mid-Holocene, ice wedges were inactive as a result of warmer and wetter climate. Ice wedge re-initiated around 6360 cal yr BP, with a peak in activity between 3980 and 920 cal yr BP, a period characterized by cool and moist climate. Overall, timing of ice-wedge activity was broadly consistent with the climate and vegetation evolution in the western Arctic.
Preliminary studies report no negative and a possible positive impact of deep brain stimulation (DBS) on cognition of patients with treatment-resistant depression (TRD). However, these studies neither controlled for practice effects nor compared active with sham stimulation.
To address these limitations, we compared 25 TRD patients, who underwent DBS of the ventral anterior limb of the internal capsule (vALIC), with 21 healthy controls (HCs) matched on gender, age and education level. Both groups did subtests of the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery assessing verbal and visuospatial memory, attention, cognitive flexibility, psychomotor functioning, planning and object naming. TRD patients were tested 3 weeks prior to DBS surgery (baseline), 3 weeks following surgery (T1) and following 52 weeks of DBS optimization (T2). HCs were tested at baseline, 6 weeks following baseline (T1) and 20–24 weeks following baseline (T2). Subsequently, TRD patients entered a randomized, double-blind crossover phase, in which they were tested in an active and a sham stimulation phase.
TRD patients did not improve on a test of immediate verbal recognition from baseline to T1, whereas HCs did (group x time: p = 0.001). Both TRD patients and HCs improved over sessions on tests measuring delayed verbal recall, visuospatial memory, planning and object naming (all p < 0.01). Active and sham stimulation did not have an impact on any of the tests differentially.
vALIC DBS neither has a lasting positive nor negative impact on cognition in TRD patients. DBS surgery might have a temporary negative effect on verbal memory.
Neighboring tidewater glaciers often exhibit asynchronous dynamic behavior, despite relatively uniform regional atmospheric and oceanic forcings. This variability may be controlled by a combination of local factors, including glacier and fjord geometry, fjord heat content and circulation, and glacier surface melt. In order to characterize and understand contrasts in adjacent tidewater glacier and fjord dynamics, we made coincident ice-ocean-atmosphere observations at high temporal resolution (minutes to weeks) within a 10 000 km2 area near Uummannaq, Greenland. Water column velocity, temperature and salinity measurements reveal systematic differences in neighboring fjords that imply contrasting circulation patterns. The observed ocean velocity and hydrography, combined with numerical modeling, suggest that subglacial discharge plays a major role in setting fjord conditions. In addition, satellite remote sensing of seasonal ice flow speed and terminus position reveal both speedup and slow-down in response to melt, as well as differences in calving style among the neighboring glaciers. Glacier force budgets and modeling also point toward subglacial discharge as a key factor in glacier behavior. For the studied region, individual glacier and fjord geometry modulate subglacial discharge, which leads to contrasts in both fjord and glacier dynamics.
This study described prescribing trends before and after implementing a provincial strategy aimed at improving osteoporosis and fracture prevention in Ontario long-term care (LTC) homes. Data were obtained from a pharmacy provider for 10 LTC homes in 2007 and 166 homes in 2012. We used weighted, multiple linear regression analyses to examine facility-level changes in vitamin D, calcium, and osteoporosis medication prescribing rates between 2007 and 2012. After five years, the estimated increase in vitamin D, calcium, and osteoporosis medication prescribing rates, respectively, was 38.2 per cent (95% confidence interval [CI]: 29.0, 47.3; p < .001), 4.0 per cent (95% CI: –3.9, 12.0; p = .318), and 0.2 per cent (95% CI: –3.3, 3.7; p = .91). Although the study could not assess causality, findings suggest that wide-scale knowledge translation activities successfully improved vitamin D prescribing rates, although ongoing efforts are needed to target homes with low uptake.
This paper will discuss the structure-property model developed that correlates the tensile modulus to the elastic properties and angular distribution of constituent graphitic layers for carbon fiber derived from a polyethylene precursor. In addition, a high-temperature fiber tensile device was built to enable heating of carbon fiber bundles at a variable rate from 25 °C to greater than ∼2300 °C, while simultaneously applying a tensile stress. This capability combined with synchrotron wide-angle x-ray diffraction (WAXD), enabled observation in situ and in real time of the microstructural transformation from different carbon fiber precursors to high-modulus carbon fiber. Experiments conducted using PAN- and PE-derived fiber precursors reveal stark differences in their carbonization and high-temperature graphitization behavior.
Indaziflam is a PRE herbicide for control of annual grass and broadleaf weeds in numerous settings, including managed roadsides, railroads, and noncroplands. There is a need for new and improved PRE herbicides for herbaceous vegetation management along roadsides; however, off-target crop injury via spray drift is a concern because of the close proximity of roadside applications to the wide array of crops grown throughout the southeastern United States where indaziflam is used. Greenhouse research was conducted to evaluate the effect of PRE and POST simulated indaziflam spray drift rates on the growth of cotton, bell pepper, soybean, squash, tobacco, and tomato. Simulated indaziflam spray drift rates were 100, 20, 10, 5, or 2.5% of a 73 g ai ha−1 application rate, whereas other herbicide treatments included for comparative purposes were applied at 10% of a typical North Carolina roadside vegetation management application rate. These included sulfometuron (4 g ai ha−1), aminocyclopyrachlor + metsulfuron (11 + 3.5 g ai ha−1), clopyralid + triclopyr (21 + 63 g ai ha−1), or aminopyralid (12 g ai ha−1). In general, plant growth responses varied among herbicides and application timings. Across all evaluated parameters, indaziflam at the 10% simulated drift rate adversely effected plant growth similarly or less than all other herbicides when applied PRE (squash and tomato), POST (bell pepper and soybean), and PRE or POST (cotton and tobacco). No clear trends were observed regarding indaziflam application timing, as PRE squash and tomato, and POST bell pepper and soybean applications were safer than their respective alternative timing, and no significant differences were detected between timings on cotton or tobacco. Across application timings, plant susceptibility to indaziflam-simulated spray drift rates ranked cotton < tobacco < tomato < squash < pepper < soybean. Finally, it should be noted that the lowest simulated indaziflam drift rate (2.5%) caused greater than 20% root mass reduction on cotton (POST), bell pepper (PRE and POST), soybean (PRE and POST), squash (PRE), and tomato (POST). Although this research supports indaziflam use along roadsides, it still poses an off-target plant injury risk. Future research should evaluate techniques to minimize spray drift from roadside pesticide applications.
In recent years, increasing implementation of biological, cultural, and mechanical weed-control methods is desired; however, many of these techniques are not viable in established turfgrass systems. The use of freezing or frost for weed control has previously been researched; however, is not well elucidated. Field and greenhouse experiments were conducted to evaluate liquid carbon dioxide (LCD) for weed control in established turfgrass systems. LCD was applied with handheld prototypes that were modified to reduce the amount of LCD required for weed control. Common annual and perennial turfgrass weeds included common chickweed, corn speedwell, goosegrass, large crabgrass, smooth crabgrass, Virginia buttonweed, and white clover. Turfgrass tolerance was evaluated on the following species: hybrid bermudagrass, Kentucky bluegrass, tall fescue, and zoysiagrass. The final modification allowed for lower output (0.5 kg LCD min−1) when compared with the initial prototype (3 kg LCD min−1). In general, weed control increased as LCD increased. When comparing weed species life cycles, annuals were controlled more than perennials (P < 0.0001) at 14 and 28 d after treatment (DAT). Further, exposure time affected control as white clover, Virginia buttonweed, and large crabgrass control was greater (18, 14, 15%, respectively) from the longer exposure time (30 vs. 15 s), although equivalent amounts of LCD (30 kg m−2) were applied. These data also suggest that plant maturity affects control, as large crabgrass control in one- to two- and three- to four-leaf stages (> 90%) was greater than in the one- to two-tiller stage (< 70%). Turfgrass injury at 7 DAT was unacceptable (> 30%) on all species, but declined to 0% by 28 DAT. These data suggest that LCD has the potential to provide an alternative for weed control of select species where synthetic herbicides are not allowed or desired.
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a promising new treatment for patients with treatment-refractory obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD). However, since most DBS patients only show a partial response, the treatment still needs to be improved. In this study we hypothesized that cognitive–behavioural therapy (CBT) could optimize the post-operative management in DBS and we evaluated the efficacy of CBT as augmentation to DBS targeted at the nucleus accumbens.
A total of 16 patients with treatment-refractory OCD were treated with DBS targeted at the nucleus accumbens. After stabilization of decline in OCD symptoms, a standardized 24-week CBT treatment programme was added to DBS in an open-phase trial of 8 months. Changes in obsessive–compulsive, anxiety and depressive symptoms were evaluated using the Yale–Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale, Hamilton Anxiety Scale and Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression.
Following the addition of CBT to DBS, a significant decrease in obsessive–compulsive symptoms was observed, but not in anxiety and depressive symptoms. In a subsequent double-blind phase, in which stimulation was discontinued, OCD symptoms returned to baseline (relapse) and anxiety and depressive symptoms worsened (rebound) compared with baseline.
The results of this explorative study suggest that a combined treatment of accumbens DBS and CBT may be optimal for improving obsessive–compulsive symptoms in treatment-refractory OCD. However, a subsequent randomized controlled trial is necessary to draw firm conclusions. It seems that DBS results in affective changes that may be required to enable response prevention in CBT. This may indicate that DBS and CBT act as two complementary treatments.