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In many US states, the power to regulate urban agriculture (UA) rests in local governments. Although there has been increased interest in UA, some local governments have been slow to adopt policies or ordinances to foster food production in urban areas or have actively sought to limit UA in their municipalities. To learn more about the disconnect between resident interest and local government policy, University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences Extension and Center for Public Issues Education conducted a statewide survey of local government stakeholders (LGS) to assess their attitudes toward UA, subjective knowledge of UA, perceived benefits of and barriers to the implementation of UA and educational needs. Responses were collected using 5-point semantic differential and Likert-type scales. Overall, respondents displayed positive attitudes and moderate knowledge of UA, and they identified a number of benefits of and barriers to implementing UA in their communities. The findings of this study support the hypothesis that lack of basic knowledge about UA is one difficulty in fostering UA. Despite being positively disposed toward UA, LGS may not fully understand how to effectively develop and implement policies to foster UA. This finding may also help explain reluctance to adopt local government policies to support UA. Efforts to provide LGS key information and enhance their knowledge of UA may support the development of UA activities.
Ecosystem modeling, a pillar of the systems ecology paradigm (SEP), addresses questions such as, how much carbon and nitrogen are cycled within ecological sites, landscapes, or indeed the earth system? Or how are human activities modifying these flows? Modeling, when coupled with field and laboratory studies, represents the essence of the SEP in that they embody accumulated knowledge and generate hypotheses to test understanding of ecosystem processes and behavior. Initially, ecosystem models were primarily used to improve our understanding about how biophysical aspects of ecosystems operate. However, current ecosystem models are widely used to make accurate predictions about how large-scale phenomena such as climate change and management practices impact ecosystem dynamics and assess potential effects of these changes on economic activity and policy making. In sum, ecosystem models embedded in the SEP remain our best mechanism to integrate diverse types of knowledge regarding how the earth system functions and to make quantitative predictions that can be confronted with observations of reality. Modeling efforts discussed are the Century ecosystem model, DayCent ecosystem model, Grassland Ecosystem Model ELM, food web models, Savanna model, agent-based and coupled systems modeling, and Bayesian modeling.
Milrinone is a phosphodiesterase type 3 inhibitor that results in a positive inotropic effect in the heart through an increase in cyclic adenosine monophosphate. The purpose of this study was to evaluate circulating cyclic adenosine monophosphate and milrinone concentrations in milrinone treated paediatric patients undergoing congenital heart surgery.
Single-centre prospective observational pilot study from January 2015 to December 2017 including children aged birth to 18 years. Milrinone and circulating cyclic adenosine monophosphate concentrations were measured at four time points through the first post-operative day and compared between patients with and without low cardiac output syndrome, defined using clinical and laboratory criteria.
Fifty patients were included. Nine (18%) developed low cardiac output syndrome. For all patients, 22% had single ventricle heart disease. The density and distribution of cyclic adenosine monophosphate concentrations varied between those with and without low cardiac output syndrome but were not significantly different. Milrinone concentrations increased in all patients. Paired t-tests demonstrated an increase in circulating cyclic adenosine monophosphate concentrations during the post-operative period among patients without low cardiac output syndrome.
In this prospective observational study, circulating cyclic adenosine monophosphate concentrations increased in those without low cardiac output syndrome during the first 24 post-operative hours and milrinone concentrations increased in all patients. Further study of the utility of cyclic adenosine monophosphate concentrations in milrinone treated patients is necessary.
This study aimed to assess whether the long-term effectiveness of the Melbourne Infant, Feeding, Activity and Nutrition Trial (INFANT) at 2 and 3·5 years post-intervention varied according to maternal education and age.
Two and 3·5 years post-intervention follow-up of the INFANT cluster-randomised controlled trial. Outcomes at both follow-ups included children’s BMI z-scores, physical activity (ActiGraph), television viewing (parental report) and dietary intake (3 × 24-h dietary recalls). Dichotomous moderator variables included maternal education (university v. no university) and age (< 32 v. ≥ 32 years).
Families completing the 15-month programme (n 492) were invited to participate in the follow-ups when their child was 3·6 and 5 years old.
At the 2-year follow-up, the intervention effects on vegetable (positive) and sweet snack (negative) intake were greater in children with higher educated mothers, whereas water consumption (positive) was greater in children with lower educated mothers. At the 2-year follow-up, the intervention was more effective in increasing water consumption in children with younger mothers and decreasing sweet snack intake in children with older mothers (opposite result observed at the 3·5-year follow-up). At the 3·5-year follow-up, children with younger and older mothers increased and decreased their consumption of savoury snacks, respectively.
Moderation by maternal education and age were observed for some outcomes; however, clear patterns were not evident at both follow-ups, with little consistency across outcomes. This indicates that INFANT was more-or-less equally effective in children irrespective of their mother’s education level or age, which is important in community-based interventions.
Chapter 8 addresses the social science of drug addiction. The study of the “opium problem” (an early label) was, from its 1910s beginning, entangled with the federal government. Federal institutions generally promoted research that located addiction in personal psychology or the properties of drugs and their effects on the brain. There was, from the 1930s onward, a marginal but persistent alternative-exemplified by sociologists Alfred Lindesmith and Howard S. Becker-focused on the social process of definition, one that involved “addicts” themselves interacting with their social environment. An avalanche of new interest in the 1960s and 1970s-a response to a perceived drugs crisis and follow-on funding and policy mandates that brought into being the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA)-brought epidemiologists, economists, and anthropologists into the research mix. The social sciences of addiction was a century-long jurisdictional melee, with the notable inclusion of fields bordering on, or fully within, the natural sciences. The chapter concludes that the least “social” among them, neuroscience, came to dominate by the 1990s.
This study aimed to examine the predictors of cognitive performance in patients with pediatric mild traumatic brain injury (pmTBI) and to determine whether group differences in cognitive performance on a computerized test battery could be observed between pmTBI patients and healthy controls (HC) in the sub-acute (SA) and the early chronic (EC) phases of injury.
203 pmTBI patients recruited from emergency settings and 159 age- and sex-matched HC aged 8–18 rated their ongoing post-concussive symptoms (PCS) on the Post-Concussion Symptom Inventory and completed the Cogstate brief battery in the SA (1–11 days) phase of injury. A subset (156 pmTBI patients; 144 HC) completed testing in the EC (∼4 months) phase.
Within the SA phase, a group difference was only observed for the visual learning task (One-Card Learning), with pmTBI patients being less accurate relative to HC. Follow-up analyses indicated higher ongoing PCS and higher 5P clinical risk scores were significant predictors of lower One-Card Learning accuracy within SA phase, while premorbid variables (estimates of intellectual functioning, parental education, and presence of learning disabilities or attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder) were not.
The absence of group differences at EC phase is supportive of cognitive recovery by 4 months post-injury. While the severity of ongoing PCS and the 5P score were better overall predictors of cognitive performance on the Cogstate at SA relative to premorbid variables, the full regression model explained only 4.1% of the variance, highlighting the need for future work on predictors of cognitive outcomes.
Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is characterized by the progressive loss of motor neurons causing muscle atrophy and weakness. Nusinersen, the first effective SMA therapy was approved by Health Canada in June 2017 and has been added to the provincial formulary of all but one Canadian province. Access to this effective therapy has triggered the inclusion of SMA in an increasing number of Newborn Screening (NBS) programs. However, the range of disease-modifying SMN2 gene copy numbers encountered in survival motor neuron 1 (SMN1)-null individuals means that neither screen-positive definition nor resulting treatment decisions can be determined by SMN1 genotype alone. We outline an approach to this challenge, one that specifically addresses the case of SMA newborns with four copies of SMN2.
To develop a standardized post-referral evaluation pathway for babies with a positive SMA NBS screen result.
An SMA NBS pilot trial in Ontario using first-tier MassARRAY and second-tier multi-ligand probe amplification (MLPA) was launched in January 2020. Prior to this, Ontario pediatric neuromuscular disease and NBS experts met to review the evidence regarding the diagnosis and treatment of children with SMA as it pertained to NBS. A post-referral evaluation algorithm was developed, outlining timelines for patient retrieval and management.
Ontario’s pilot NBS program has created a standardized path to facilitate early diagnosis of SMA and initiation of treatment. The goal is to provide timely access to those SMA infants in need of therapy to optimize motor function and prolong survival.
Unit cohesion may protect service member mental health by mitigating effects of combat exposure; however, questions remain about the origins of potential stress-buffering effects. We examined buffering effects associated with two forms of unit cohesion (peer-oriented horizontal cohesion and subordinate-leader vertical cohesion) defined as either individual-level or aggregated unit-level variables.
Longitudinal survey data from US Army soldiers who deployed to Afghanistan in 2012 were analyzed using mixed-effects regression. Models evaluated individual- and unit-level interaction effects of combat exposure and cohesion during deployment on symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and suicidal ideation reported at 3 months post-deployment (model n's = 6684 to 6826). Given the small effective sample size (k = 89), the significance of unit-level interactions was evaluated at a 90% confidence level.
At the individual-level, buffering effects of horizontal cohesion were found for PTSD symptoms [B = −0.11, 95% CI (−0.18 to −0.04), p < 0.01] and depressive symptoms [B = −0.06, 95% CI (−0.10 to −0.01), p < 0.05]; while a buffering effect of vertical cohesion was observed for PTSD symptoms only [B = −0.03, 95% CI (−0.06 to −0.0001), p < 0.05]. At the unit-level, buffering effects of horizontal (but not vertical) cohesion were observed for PTSD symptoms [B = −0.91, 90% CI (−1.70 to −0.11), p = 0.06], depressive symptoms [B = −0.83, 90% CI (−1.24 to −0.41), p < 0.01], and suicidal ideation [B = −0.32, 90% CI (−0.62 to −0.01), p = 0.08].
Policies and interventions that enhance horizontal cohesion may protect combat-exposed units against post-deployment mental health problems. Efforts to support individual soldiers who report low levels of horizontal or vertical cohesion may also yield mental health benefits.
Non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) serovars, sequences types and antimicrobial susceptibility profiles have specific associations with animal and human infections in Vietnam. Antimicrobial resistance may have an effect on the manifestation of human NTS infections, with isolates from asymptomatic individuals being more susceptible to antimicrobials than those associated with animals and human diarrhoea.
Background: Trauma care represents a complex patient journey, requiring multi-disciplinary coordinated care. Team members are human, and as such, how they feel about their colleagues and their work affects performance. The challenge for health service leaders is enabling culture that supports high levels of collaboration, cooperation and coordination across diverse groups. Aim Statement: We aimed to define and set the agenda for improvement of the relational aspects of trauma care at a large tertiary care hospital. Measures & Design: We conducted a mixed-methods collaborative ethnography using the Relational Coordination survey – an established tool to analyze the relational dimensions of multidisciplinary teamwork – participant observation, interviews, and narrative surveys. Findings were presented to clinicians in working groups for further interpretation and to facilitate co-creation of targeted interventions designed to improve team relationships and performance. Evaluation/Results: We engaged a complex multidisciplinary network of ~500 care providers dispersed across seven core interdependent clinical disciplines. Initial findings highlighted the importance of relationships in trauma care and opportunities to improve. Narrative survey and ethnographic findings further highlighted the centrality of a translational simulation program in contributing positively to team culture and relational ties. A range of 16 interventions – focusing on structural, process and relational dimensions – were co-created with participants and are now being implemented and evaluated by various trauma care providers. Discussion/Impact: Through engagement of clinicians spanning organizational boundaries, relational aspects of care can be measured and directly targeted in a collaborative quality improvement process. We encourage health care leaders to consider relationship-based quality improvement strategies, including translational simulation and relational coordination processes, in their efforts to improve care for patients with complex, interdependent journeys.
Introduction: Patients frequently present to the Emergency Department (ED) with predictable complications associated with radiation and chemotherapy for active cancer. Care alternatives have been proposed to reduce ED visits; however, no systematic review related to ED presentations has been completed. The objective of this scoping review was to examine the effectiveness of interventions designed to reduce ED visits among patients receiving active cancer treatment. Methods: A comprehensive literature search involving nine electronic databases and the grey literature was completed. Inclusion criteria considered studies assessing the impact of any intervention to reduce ED utilization among patients with active cancer. Two reviewers independently assessed relevance and inclusion; disagreements were resolved through third party adjudication. Dichotomous and continuous outcomes were summarized as risk ratio (RR) or mean difference (MD) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using a random-effects model, wherever appropriate. Results: From 3303 citations, a total of 25 studies were included. Interventions identified in these studies comprised: routine and symptom-based patient follow-up, oncology outpatient clinics, early symptom detection, comprehensive inpatient management, hospital at home, and patient navigators. Six out of eight studies assessing oncology outpatient clinics reported a decrease in the proportion of patients presenting to the ED. A meta-analysis of three of these studies did not demonstrate reduction in ED utilization (RR 0.78; 95% CI: 0.56 to 1.08; I2 = 77%) when comparing oncology outpatient clinics to standard care; however, sensitivity analysis removing one study reporting rare events supported a decrease in ED visits (RR 0.86; 95% CI: 0.74 to 0.99; I2 = 47%). Three studies assessing patient follow-up interventions showed no difference in ED utilization (RR 0.69; 95% CI: 0.38 to 1.25; I2 = 86%). Conclusion: A variety of interventions designed to mitigate ED presentations by patients receiving active cancer treatment have been developed and evaluated. Limited evidence suggests that an oncology outpatient clinic may be an effective strategy to reduce ED utilization; however, additional high-quality studies are needed.
In Australia, free-range egg production pullets are typically reared indoors, but adult layers get outdoor access. This new environment may be challenging to adapt to, which could impair egg production and/or egg quality. Adaptation might be enhanced through rearing enrichments. We reared 1386 Hy-Line Brown® chicks indoors with three treatments across 16 weeks: (1) a control group with standard litter housing conditions, (2) a novelty group providing novel objects that changed weekly, and (3) a structural enrichment group with custom-designed structures to partially impair visibility across the pen and allow for vertical movement. Pullets were transferred to a free-range system at 16 weeks of age with daily outdoor access provided from 25 until 64 weeks. Daily egg production at different laying locations (large nests, small nests and floor), weekly egg weights and egg abnormalities were recorded from 18 to 64 weeks old. External and internal egg quality parameters of egg weight, shell reflectivity, albumen height, haugh unit, yolk colour score, shell weight and shell thickness were measured at 44, 52, 60 and 64 weeks. There was a significant interaction between rearing treatment and nest box use on hen-day production from weeks 18 to 25 (P < 0.0001) with the novelty hens laying the most eggs and the control hens the fewest eggs in the nest box. Similarly, from 26 to 64 weeks, the novelty hens laid more eggs in the large nest boxes and fewer eggs on the floor than both the structural and control hens (P < 0.0001). Egg weight and abnormalities increased with age (P < 0.0001), but rearing treatment had no effect on either measure (both P ≥ 0.19). Rearing treatment affected shell reflectivity and yolk colour with the control hens showing paler colours across time relative to the changes observed in the eggs from enriched hens. The novelty hens may have established nest box laying patterns as they were more accustomed to exploring new environments. The differences in egg quality could be related to stress adaptability or ranging behaviour. This study shows that enriching environments during rearing can have some impacts on production parameters in free-range hens.