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The Centro de Laseres Pulsados in Salamanca, Spain has recently started operation phase and the first user access period on the 6 J 30 fs 200 TW system (VEGA 2) already started at the beginning of 2018. In this paper we report on two commissioning experiments recently performed on the VEGA 2 system in preparation for the user campaign. VEGA 2 system has been tested in different configurations depending on the focusing optics and targets used. One configuration (long focal length
cm) is for underdense laser–matter interaction where VEGA 2 is focused onto a low density gas-jet generating electron beams (via laser wake field acceleration mechanism) with maximum energy up to 500 MeV and an X-ray betatron source with a 10 keV critical energy. A second configuration (short focal length
cm) is for overdense laser–matter interaction where VEGA 2 is focused onto a
thick Al target generating a proton beam with a maximum energy of 10 MeV and temperature of 2.5 MeV. In this paper we present preliminary experimental results.
BaTiO3 powders were prepared through mechanical activation chemistry and analyzed by Rietveld refinement with X-ray diffraction data. Raw BaCO3 and TiO2 powders were dry milled for 5 and 20 h and then calcinated for 2 and 4 h at 800 °C. The milling process was found to have broken up the BaCO3 and TiO2 crystals into smaller crystals and formed only small amounts (<1.5 wt%) of BaTiO3. Subsequence calcinations for 2 and 4 h at 800 °C successfully produced large amounts (>97.7 wt%) of BaTiO3 crystals. The calcination process also generated microstrains and crystallite-size anisotropy in BaTiO3. An increase in the calcination time from 2 to 4 h increased the BaTiO3 weight percentage and the crystallite-shape anisotropy, but decreased the tetragonal distortion anisotropic microstrains in BaTiO3 crystals.
There are concerns regarding the validity of combat exposure reports of veterans seeking treatment for combat-related post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) within US Veterans Affairs Medical Centers.
To verify combat exposure history for a relevant sample through objective historical data.
Archival records were reviewed from the US National Military Personnel Records Center for 100 consecutive veterans reporting Vietnam combat in a Veterans Affairs PTSD clinic. Cross-sectional clinical assessment and 12-month service use data were also examined.
Although 93% had documentation of Vietnam war-zone service, only 41% of the total sample had objective evidence of combat exposure documented in their military record. There was virtually no difference between the Vietnam ‘combat’ and ‘no combat’ groups on relevant clinical variables.
A significant number of treatment-seeking Veterans Affairs patients may misrepresent their combat involvement in Vietnam. There are implications for the integrity of the PTSD database and the Veterans Affairs healthcare system.
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