To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Many graduate programs are sincerely invested in fostering diversity and increasing the number of students from underrepresented backgrounds who will contribute to our discipline. But increasing representation is only one step needed to address inequities, disparities, and injustices. Helping all students thrive, and have an equal opportunity to achieve their educational goals requires the creation of “safe spaces” in which demographic differences are understood, appreciated, and considered in larger educational systems. This chapter discusses a frequently overlooked identity characteristic that can significantly impact the graduate school experience: being a first-generation college student.
Trends suggest that a substantial and increasing number of psychology students are working in post-baccalaureate (post-bacc) research assistant (RA) positions to gain additional experience prior to applying to graduate programs. However, few resources exist to guide students in pursuing RA positions and making the most of them. This chapter reviews factors to consider when determining whether to pursue a post-bacc RA position, provides guidance for finding and obtaining these positions, and shares suggestions for how to best prepare for graduate school during the post-bacc years. A comparison of the unique training and professional development opportunities afforded by volunteer and paid RA positions is provided, and participation in national and regional psychology conferences is emphasized.
Posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) are common following traumatic stress exposure (TSE). Identification of individuals with PTSS risk in the early aftermath of TSE is important to enable targeted administration of preventive interventions. In this study, we used baseline survey data from two prospective cohort studies to identify the most influential predictors of substantial PTSS.
Self-identifying black and white American women and men (n = 1546) presenting to one of 16 emergency departments (EDs) within 24 h of motor vehicle collision (MVC) TSE were enrolled. Individuals with substantial PTSS (⩾33, Impact of Events Scale – Revised) 6 months after MVC were identified via follow-up questionnaire. Sociodemographic, pain, general health, event, and psychological/cognitive characteristics were collected in the ED and used in prediction modeling. Ensemble learning methods and Monte Carlo cross-validation were used for feature selection and to determine prediction accuracy. External validation was performed on a hold-out sample (30% of total sample).
Twenty-five percent (n = 394) of individuals reported PTSS 6 months following MVC. Regularized linear regression was the top performing learning method. The top 30 factors together showed good reliability in predicting PTSS in the external sample (Area under the curve = 0.79 ± 0.002). Top predictors included acute pain severity, recovery expectations, socioeconomic status, self-reported race, and psychological symptoms.
These analyses add to a growing literature indicating that influential predictors of PTSS can be identified and risk for future PTSS estimated from characteristics easily available/assessable at the time of ED presentation following TSE.
Durrington Walls was a large Neolithic settlement in Britain dating around 2500 BCE, located very close to Stonehenge and likely to be the campsite where its builders lived during its main stage of construction. Nineteen coprolites recovered from a midden and associated pits at Durrington Walls were analysed for intestinal parasite eggs using digital light microscopy. Five (26%) contained helminth eggs, 1 with those of fish tapeworm (likely Dibothriocephalus dendriticus) and 4 with those of capillariid nematodes. Analyses of bile acid and sterol from these 5 coprolites show 1 to be of likely human origin and the other 4 to likely derive from dogs. The presence of fish tapeworm reveals that the Neolithic people who gathered to feast at Durrington Walls were at risk of infection from eating raw or undercooked freshwater fish. When the eggs of capillariids are found in the feces of humans or dogs it normally indicates that the internal organs (liver, lung or intestines) of animals with capillariasis have been eaten, and eggs passed through the gut without causing disease. Their presence in multiple coprolites provides new evidence that internal organs of animals were consumed. These novel findings improve our understanding of both parasitic infection and dietary habits associated with this key Neolithic ceremonial site.
Trace fossils record foraging behaviors, the search for resources in patchy environments, of animals in the rock record. Quantification of the strength, density, and nature of foraging behaviors enables the investigation of how these may have changed through time. Here, we present a novel approach to explore such patterns using spatial point process analyses to quantify the scale and strength of ichnofossil spatial distributions on horizontal bedding planes. To demonstrate the utility of this approach, we use two samples from the terminal Ediacaran Shibantan Member in South China (between 551 and 543 Ma) and the early Cambrian Nagaur Sandstone in northwestern India (between 539 and 509 Ma). We find that ichnotaxa on both surfaces exhibited significant nonhomogeneous lateral patterns, with distinct levels of heterogeneity exhibited by different types of trace fossils. In the Shibantan, two ichnotaxa show evidence for mutual positive aggregation over a shared resource, suggesting the ability to focus on optimal resource areas. Trace fossils from the Nagaur Sandstone exhibit more sophisticated foraging behavior, with greater niche differentiation. Critically, mark correlation functions highlight significant spatial autocorrelation of trace fossil orientations, demonstrating the greater ability of these Cambrian tracemakers to focus on optimal patches. Despite potential limitations, these analyses hint at changes in the development and optimization of foraging at the Ediacaran/Cambrian transition and highlight the potential of spatial point process analysis to tease apart subtle differences in behavior in the trace fossil record.
This chapter argues that the articles, poems, interviews, essays, and memoirs that emerged from Hughes’s eighteen months in the USSR reflect a distinct literary-mobility paradigm through which he critiques American race, gender, politics, justice, capitalism, and power relationships, through the rhetorical device of travel writing. Traveling to the USSR in 1932 with a group of African American writers, actors, and activists who had been invited to make a film about race in America, Hughes was eager to participate in the socialist aesthetic agenda. Despite his initial enthusiasm, Hughes soon became disillusioned with the Soviet system.
The upper Bartonian–Priabonian shallow-marine deposits in the Biga Peninsula (NW Turkey) contain some hyaline larger benthic foraminifers (LBF) with a test architecture similar to ‘orbitoidiform’ foraminifers, but displaying some distinctive and complex morphological features that are recorded here for the first time. These coarsely porous specimens are characterized by a flat, disc-shaped, fragile, and smooth test with a layer of equatorial chambers/chamberlets, surrounded by poorly developed lateral chamberlets, never forming a discrete layer on either side of the equatorial layer. The nepionic stage is very distinctive because the bilocular embryonic apparatus is followed by a semi-rounded, notably large auxiliary chamber with a characteristic wavy outline, and consecutive cyclical chambers. The cyclical chamber arrangement is later transformed into annular cycles with numerous, complex arcuate- to cup-shaped chamberlets, as observed in equatorial sections. Bigaella orbitoidiformis Özcan, Mitchell, Pignatti, Simmons, and Yücel, n. gen. n. sp., is established for these specimens, and placed within the family Eoannulariidae Ferràndez-Cañadell and Serra-Kiel, emended herein. The new genus occurs together with Caudriella Haman and Huddleston and Epiannularia Caudri (both originally established from the American bioprovince) and the genus Linderina Schlumberger (found both in the Tethys and the American bioprovinces), together with other typical Western Tethyan LBFs. A comparison of the new genus with the aforementioned taxa is given.
Response to lithium in patients with bipolar disorder is associated with clinical and transdiagnostic genetic factors. The predictive combination of these variables might help clinicians better predict which patients will respond to lithium treatment.
To use a combination of transdiagnostic genetic and clinical factors to predict lithium response in patients with bipolar disorder.
This study utilised genetic and clinical data (n = 1034) collected as part of the International Consortium on Lithium Genetics (ConLi+Gen) project. Polygenic risk scores (PRS) were computed for schizophrenia and major depressive disorder, and then combined with clinical variables using a cross-validated machine-learning regression approach. Unimodal, multimodal and genetically stratified models were trained and validated using ridge, elastic net and random forest regression on 692 patients with bipolar disorder from ten study sites using leave-site-out cross-validation. All models were then tested on an independent test set of 342 patients. The best performing models were then tested in a classification framework.
The best performing linear model explained 5.1% (P = 0.0001) of variance in lithium response and was composed of clinical variables, PRS variables and interaction terms between them. The best performing non-linear model used only clinical variables and explained 8.1% (P = 0.0001) of variance in lithium response. A priori genomic stratification improved non-linear model performance to 13.7% (P = 0.0001) and improved the binary classification of lithium response. This model stratified patients based on their meta-polygenic loadings for major depressive disorder and schizophrenia and was then trained using clinical data.
Using PRS to first stratify patients genetically and then train machine-learning models with clinical predictors led to large improvements in lithium response prediction. When used with other PRS and biological markers in the future this approach may help inform which patients are most likely to respond to lithium treatment.
Informal carers play an essential role in the care of individuals with Parkinson’s disease (PD). This role, however, is often fraught with difficulties, including emotional, physical, and financial. Coping styles and relationship quality have been hypothesized to influence the impact of stressors. The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between carers’ coping style, relationship quality, and carer burden.
Thirty-nine PD patient carer dyads were included in the study.
Participants completed self-rated questionnaires including the Dyadic Adjustment Scale, Zarit Burden Interview, and Brief Coping Orientation to Problems Experienced Inventory.
Correlational analyses found significant and positive correlation between carer burden and all three coping styles (problem-focused, emotion-focused, and dysfunctional). There was also a moderate association between carers’ perceived relationship quality and satisfaction and carer burden. Regression analyses found that carer’s gender, severity of PD, relationship quality, emotion-focused, and dysfunctional coping styles did not predict carer burden. Conversely, problem-focused coping style predicted carer burden.
The results highlight that there is no perfect way to react and care for a loved one and serves as important information for practitioners who design and implement interventions.
The aim of this study was to identify any relationship between hearing loss and mild cognitive impairment.
This was a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials conducted using Medline and the Cochrane Library up to 24 June 2020. Prospective, cohort and cross-sectional, and observational studies that reported on the relationship between mild cognitive impairment and hearing loss were included.
A total of 34 studies reporting data on 48 017 participants were included. Twenty-three studies observed a significant association between hearing loss and mild cognitive impairment. The pooled risk ratio across all studies of prevalence of mild cognitive impairment in people with hearing loss was 1.44 (random-effects; 95 per cent CI = 1.27–1.64; p < 0.00001; I2 = 0 per cent). Significantly more people with mild cognitive impairment had peripheral hearing loss compared with those without (risk ratio, 1.40 random-effects; 95 per cent CI = 1.10–1.77; p = 0.005; I2 = 0 per cent). When the incidence was studied, significantly more people with peripheral hearing loss had mild cognitive impairment compared with those without (risk ratio = 2.06 random-effects; 95 per cent CI = 1.35–3.15; p = 0.0008; I2 = 97 per cent); however; a high level of statistical heterogeneity was evident.
Most of the studies included in this systematic review observed a significant association between hearing loss and mild cognitive impairment.
To determine the frequency and predictors of antibiotic escalation in response to the inpatient sepsis screen at our institution.
Retrospective cohort study.
Two affiliated academic medical centers in Los Angeles, California.
Hospitalized patients aged 18 years and older who had their first positive sepsis screen between January 1, 2019, and December 31, 2019, on acute-care wards.
We described the rate and etiology of antibiotic escalation, and we conducted multivariable regression analyses of predictors of antibiotic escalation.
Of the 576 cases with a positive sepsis screen, antibiotic escalation occurred in 131 cases (22.7%). New infection was the most documented etiology of escalation, with 76 cases (13.2%), followed by known pre-existing infection, with 26 cases (4.5%). Antibiotics were continued past 3 days in 17 cases (3.0%) in which new or existing infection was not apparent. Abnormal temperature (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 3.00; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.91–4.70) and abnormal lactate (aOR, 2.04; 95% CI, 1.28–3.27) were significant predictors of antibiotic escalation. The patient already being on antibiotics (aOR, 0.54; 95% CI, 0.34–0.89) and the positive screen occurred during a nursing shift change (aOR, 0.36; 95% CI, 0.22–0.57) were negative predictors. Pneumonia was the most documented new infection, but only 19 (50%) of 38 pneumonia cases met full clinical diagnostic criteria.
Inpatient sepsis screening led to a new infectious diagnosis in 13.2% of all positive sepsis screens, and the risk of prolonged antibiotic exposure without a clear infectious source was low. Pneumonia diagnostics and lactate testing are potential targets for future stewardship efforts.
This chapter compares the Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement (TPP) with the Australia -- United States Free Trade Agreement (AUSFTA), reflecting on relevant developments in the Australia -- United States relationship, including with respect to agriculture and biologic medicines. The chapter focuses on the Chapters on services and investment, addressing areas such as electronic commerce, investor--state dispute settlement (ISDS), and the "carve-out" of tobacco control measures from ISDS in the TPP. The comparison of investment in the two treaties is particularly of interest given the exclusion of ISDS in the AUSFTA and its inclusion (except as between Australia and New Zealand) in the TPP. We conclude that the TPP is a more modern agreement than the AUSFTA with several improvements that provide greater regulatory policy space. However, the inclusion of ISDS as between Australia and the United States in the TPP is questionable.
Laws and regulations hindering data flows across borders are trade-restrictive, and some of these measures can violate WTO and PTAs' obligations. The chapter starts by exploring the multi-layered policy framework governing data flows and cross-border data flows identifying various policy goals typically associated with data restrictions.
This includes exploring the various elements required within the WTO framework to address the policy ramifications of data restrictive measures, focusing on General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS). The chapter then explains the trade-related aspects of data flow regulation by focusing on two interconnected topics: (i) the special nature of digital trade and trade in data that makes it harder to apply existing GATS provisions to digital services; and (ii) those aspects of data flows that are trade-related and, thus, should be addressed in a trade law framework. Finally, the chapter proposes a novel WTO framework on data flows by identifying the foundational principles for data regulation and the legal provisions necessary to enable security, predictability and certainty in data flows.
Discrepancies exist in reports of social cognition deficits in individuals with premanifest Huntington’s disease (HD); however, the reason for this variability has not been investigated. The aims of this study were to (1) evaluate group- and individual-level social cognitive performance and (2) examine intra-individual variability (dispersion) across social cognitive domains in individuals with premanifest HD.
Theory of mind (ToM), social perception, empathy, and social connectedness were evaluated in 35 individuals with premanifest HD and 29 healthy controls. Cut-off values beneath the median and 1.5 × the interquartile range below the 25th percentile (P25 – 1.5 × IQR) of healthy controls for each variable were established for a profiling method. Dispersion between social cognitive domains was also calculated.
Compared to healthy controls, individuals with premanifest HD performed worse on all social cognitive domains except empathy. Application of the profiling method revealed a large proportion of people with premanifest HD fell below healthy control median values across ToM (>80%), social perception (>57%), empathy (>54%), and social behaviour (>40%), with a percentage of these individuals displaying more pronounced impairments in empathy (20%) and ToM (22%). Social cognition dispersion did not differ between groups. No significant correlations were found between social cognitive domains and mood, sleep, and neurocognitive outcomes.
Significant group-level social cognition deficits were observed in the premanifest HD cohort. However, our profiling method showed that only a small percentage of these individuals experienced marked difficulties in social cognition, indicating the importance of individual-level assessments, particularly regarding future personalised treatments.
Adolescent risk for self-injurious thoughts and behaviors (STBs) involves disturbance across multiple systems (e.g., affective valence, arousal regulatory, cognitive and social processes). However, research integrating information across these systems is lacking. Utilizing a multiple-levels-of-analysis approach, this person-centered study identified psychobiological stress response profiles and linked them to cognitive processes, interpersonal behaviors, and STBs. At baseline, adolescent girls (N = 241, Mage = 14.68 years, Range = 12–17) at risk for STBs completed the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST), questionnaires, and STB interviews. Positive affect (PA), negative affect (NA), and salivary cortisol (SC) were assessed before and after the TSST. STBs were assessed again during 3, 6, and 9 month follow-up interviews. Multitrajectory modeling of girls’ PA, NA, and SC revealed four profiles, which were compared on cognitive and behavioral correlates as well as STB outcomes. Relative to normative, girls in the affective distress, hyperresponsive, and hyporesponsive subgroups were more likely to report negative cognitive style (all three groups) and excessive reassurance seeking (hyporesponsive only) at baseline, as well as nonsuicidal self-injury (all three groups) and suicidal ideation and attempt (hyporesponsive only) at follow-up. Girls’ close friendship characteristics moderated several profile–STB links. A synthesis of the findings is presented alongside implications for person-centered tailoring of intervention efforts.
ABSTRACT IMPACT: Understanding dietary patterns and nutrient intakes of the aging population may help address concerns and dietary guidelines regarding their nutritional needs. OBJECTIVES/GOALS: The objective of this study is to test the hypothesis that a healthy dietary pattern in the oldest old (aged 80 years and older) is related to greater compliance with dietary recommendations and better nutrient intake profiles. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: We conducted a cross-sectional study of 122 participants aged 82 to 97 years old from the Geisinger Rural Aging Study (GRAS) cohort in rural Pennsylvania (n = 56 men and 66 women). The main outcome measures of the investigation were the daily nutrient intakes and food group intakes evaluated from the average of three 24-hour dietary recalls. The dietary patterns were determined by cluster analysis from 28 food groups. Diet quality and adherence to the Dietary Guidelines for Americans was assessed by the Healthy Eating Index (HEI)-2015 and the Dietary Screening Tool (DST). Recommended intakes were determined by the Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) or Adequate Intakes (AIs). RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Less than 50% of participants met the dietary recommended intakes for vitamins D, E, K, B6, dietary fiber, zinc, potassium, and calcium. The more-nutrient-dense cluster was characterized by higher intakes of fruits and vegetables. The less-nutrient-dense cluster was characterized by higher intakes of foods including desserts and sweets. After adjusting for age, sex, and energy intake, participants in the more-nutrient-dense dietary pattern had a higher intake of vitamins A, D, K, C, fiber, and potassium (p < 0.05 for all). After adjusting for age and sex, participants in the more-nutrient-dense pattern had better diet quality assessed by the (HEI)-2015 (p < 0.001) and DST (p = 0.006). DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF FINDINGS: Among the oldest old, many participants were found to have nutrient intakes lower than the recommended levels for fundamental nutrients suggesting that dietary guidance in addition to a dietary pattern more aligned with dietary guidelines may be beneficial for supporting healthy aging.
Paleosols formed in direct contact with the Earth's atmosphere, so they can record the composition of the atmosphere through weathering processes and products. Herein we critically review a variety of different approaches for reconstructing atmospheric O2 and CO2 over the past three billion years. Paleosols indicate relatively low CO2 over that time, requiring additional greenhouse forcing to overcome the 'faint young Sun' paradox in the Archean and Mesoproterozoic, as well as low O2 levels until the Neoproterozoic. Emerging techniques will revise the history of Earth's atmosphere further and may provide a window into atmospheric evolution on other planets.
In this article the erratic coupling that can occur in screeching supersonic twin jets is characterised. Non-stationary acoustic analysis is used to investigate the temporal behaviour of the coupling phenomena. The results show that where the phase between the jets is time varying, the screech tone experiences interruptions. The interruptions are either correlated and experienced by both jets or are anti-correlated and only by one. During the anti-correlated interruption, the uninterrupted jet screeches as an isolated jet. The instantaneous velocity field shows that for the majority of snapshots during an acoustic interruption, the jets do not exhibit a coupled oscillation. When the jets are uninterrupted, they are oscillating in either a coupled symmetric or anti-symmetric mode. This behaviour manifests at a condition between two operating points characterised by different coupling modes. It suggests the interruptions arise due to a competition between two global modes of the flow. Despite the existence of multiple acoustic tones in the region where these modes are competing, analysis of the individual jets reveals energetic structures with only a single wavelength. It is found that jets whose own oscillation is characterised by a single wavelength can, through coupling either symmetrically or anti-symmetrically about their symmetry plane, produce different acoustic tones. These findings are consistent across three experimental facilities. The observed modes are a function of the jet spacing and nozzle pressure, therefore future studies investigating other spacings must recharacterise the encountered coupled modes. This article provides the signatures to characterise the behaviour for future studies.
Institutional violence and associated risk factors within state hospitals have largely remained unexamined in the literature in spite of high violence prevalence rates: almost one-third (31.4%) of state hospital inpatients will engage in a violent assault during their hospitalization course. This dearth of research is particularly true for state hospital inpatients adjudicated not guilty by reason of insanity (NGRI). An NGRI status indicates that an individual has been evaluated and deemed guilty of a criminal act but, due to mental disease or defect, was incapable of either knowing or understanding the nature of their act or was incapable of distinguishing between right and wrong at the time of their crime.