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ABSTRACT IMPACT: Understanding dietary patterns and nutrient intakes of the aging population may help address concerns and dietary guidelines regarding their nutritional needs. OBJECTIVES/GOALS: The objective of this study is to test the hypothesis that a healthy dietary pattern in the oldest old (aged 80 years and older) is related to greater compliance with dietary recommendations and better nutrient intake profiles. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: We conducted a cross-sectional study of 122 participants aged 82 to 97 years old from the Geisinger Rural Aging Study (GRAS) cohort in rural Pennsylvania (n = 56 men and 66 women). The main outcome measures of the investigation were the daily nutrient intakes and food group intakes evaluated from the average of three 24-hour dietary recalls. The dietary patterns were determined by cluster analysis from 28 food groups. Diet quality and adherence to the Dietary Guidelines for Americans was assessed by the Healthy Eating Index (HEI)-2015 and the Dietary Screening Tool (DST). Recommended intakes were determined by the Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) or Adequate Intakes (AIs). RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Less than 50% of participants met the dietary recommended intakes for vitamins D, E, K, B6, dietary fiber, zinc, potassium, and calcium. The more-nutrient-dense cluster was characterized by higher intakes of fruits and vegetables. The less-nutrient-dense cluster was characterized by higher intakes of foods including desserts and sweets. After adjusting for age, sex, and energy intake, participants in the more-nutrient-dense dietary pattern had a higher intake of vitamins A, D, K, C, fiber, and potassium (p < 0.05 for all). After adjusting for age and sex, participants in the more-nutrient-dense pattern had better diet quality assessed by the (HEI)-2015 (p < 0.001) and DST (p = 0.006). DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF FINDINGS: Among the oldest old, many participants were found to have nutrient intakes lower than the recommended levels for fundamental nutrients suggesting that dietary guidance in addition to a dietary pattern more aligned with dietary guidelines may be beneficial for supporting healthy aging.
Introduction: The Prehospital Evidence-based Practice (PEP) program is an online, freely accessible, continuously updated repository of appraised EMS research evidence. This report is an analysis of published evidence for EMS interventions used to assess and treat patients suffering from hypoglycemia. Methods: PubMed was systematically searched in June 2019. One author screened titles, abstracts and full-texts for relevance. Trained appraisers reviewed full text articles, scored each on a three-point Level of Evidence (LOE) scale (based on study design and quality) and three-point Direction of Evidence (DOE) scale (supportive, neutral, or opposing findings for each intervention's primary outcome), abstracted the primary outcome, setting and assigned an outcome category (patient or process). Second party appraisal was conducted for all included studies. The level and direction of each intervention was plotted in an evidence matrix, based on appraisals. Results: Twenty-nine studies were included and appraised for seven interventions: 5 drugs (Dextrose 50% (D50), Dextrose 10% (D10), glucagon, oral glucose and thiamine), one assessment tool (point-of-care (POC) glucose testing) and one call disposition (treat-and-release). The most frequently reported study primary outcomes were related to: clinical improvement (n = 15, 51.7%), feasibility/safety (n = 8, 27.6%), and diagnostics (n = 6, 20.7%). The majority of outcomes were patient focused (n = 18, 62.0%). Conclusion: EMS interventions for treating hypoglycemia are informed by high-quality supportive evidence. Both D50 and D10 are supported by high-quality evidence; suggesting D10 may be an effective alternative to the standard D50. “Treat-and-release” practices for hypoglycemia are supported by moderate-quality evidence for the patient related outcomes of relapse, patient preference and complications. This body of evidence is high-quality, patient-focused and conducted in the prehospital setting thus generalizable paramedic practice.
In the mink industry, feed costs are the largest variable expense and breeding for feed efficient animals is warranted. Implementation of selection for feed efficiency must consider the relationships between feed efficiency and the current selection traits BW and litter size. Often, feed intake (FI) is recorded on a cage with a male and a female and there is sexual dimorphism that needs to be accounted for. Study aims were to (1) model group recorded FI accounting for sexual dimorphism, (2) derive genetic residual feed intake (RFI) as a measure of feed efficiency, (3) examine the relationship between feed efficiency and BW in males (BWM) and females (BWF) and litter size at day 21 after whelping (LS21) in Danish brown mink and (4) investigate direct and correlated response to selection on each trait of interest. Feed intake records from 9574 cages, BW records on 16 782 males and 16 875 females and LS21 records on 6446 yearling females were used for analysis. Genetic parameters for FI, BWM, BWF and LS21 were obtained using a multivariate animal model, yielding sex-specific additive genetic variances for FI and BW to account for sexual dimorphism. The analysis was performed in a Bayesian setting using Gibbs sampling, and genetic RFI was obtained from the conditional distribution of FI given BW using genetic regression coefficients. Responses to single trait selection were defined as the posterior distribution of genetic superiority of the top 10% of animals after conditioning on the genetic trends. The heritabilities ranged from 0.13 for RFI in females and LS21 to 0.59 for BWF. Genetic correlations between BW in both sexes and LS21 and FI in both sexes were unfavorable, and single trait selection on BW in either sex showed increased FI in both sexes and reduced litter size. Due to the definition of RFI and high genetic correlation between BWM and BWF, selection on RFI did not significantly alter BW. In addition, selection on RFI in either sex did not affect LS21. Genetic correlation between sexes for FI and BW was high but significantly lower than unity. The high correlations across sex allowed for selection on standardized averages of animals’ breeding values (BVs) for RFI, FI and BW, which yielded selection responses approximately equal to the responses obtained using the sex-specific BVs. The results illustrate the possibility of selecting against RFI in mink with no negative effects on BW and litter size.
To deepen understanding of the relationship between food insecurity, acculturation, and diagnosis of CHD and related health outcomes among immigrant adults.
Using cross-sectional, nationally representative data from the National Health Interview Survey 2011 to 2015, we address two research questions. First, what is the relationship of household food insecurity and acculturation with: CHD, angina pectoris, heart attack, self-rated poor health and obesity? Second, what is the association of food insecurity with these health outcomes over years of living in the USA? We estimate multivariate logistic regressions without (question 1) and with (question 2) an interaction term between food insecurity and acculturation for CHD and related health outcomes.
Low-income immigrant adults.
Food insecurity and acculturation are both associated with diagnosis of CHD and related health outcomes among immigrant adults. Food insecurity and acculturation are associated with the health of female immigrants more than males. Also, the differences by food security status in the probability of having several poor health outcomes (self-rated heath, obesity, women’s angina pectoris) are largest for those in the USA for less than 5 years, decrease for those who have lived in the USA for 5–14 years, and are larger again for those in the USA for 15 or more years.
Recent and long-term food-insecure immigrants are more vulnerable to CHD and related health outcomes than those in the USA for 5–14 years. Further research is needed to understand why.
Introduction: Early and accurate diagnosis of critical conditions is essential in emergency medical services (EMS). Serum lactate testing may be used to identify patients with worse prognosis, including sepsis. Recently, the use of a point-of-care lactate (POCL) test has been evaluated in guiding treatment in patients with sepsis. Operating as part of the Prehospital Evidence Based Practice (PEP) Program, the authors sought to identify and describe the body of evidence for POCL use in EMS and the emergency department (ED) for patients with sepsis. Methods: Following PEP methodology, in May 2018, PubMed was searched in a systematic manner. Title and abstract screening were conducted by the program coordinator. These studies were collected, appraised and added to the existing body of literature contained within the PEP database. Evidence appraisal was conducted by two reviewers who assigned both a level of evidence (LOE) on a novel three tier scale and a direction of evidence (supportive, neutral or opposing; based on primary outcome). Data on setting and study design were also extracted. Results: Eight studies were included in our analysis. Three of these studies were conducted in the ED setting; each investigating the POCL test's ability to predict severe sepsis, ICU admission or death. All three studies found supportive results for POCL. A systematic review on the use of POCL in the ED determined that this test can also improve time to treatment. Five of the total 8 studies were conducted prehospitally. Two of these studies were supportive of POCL use in the prehospital setting; in terms of feasibility and the ability to predict sepsis. Both of these study sites used this early information as part of initiating a “sepsis alert” pathway. The other three prehospital studies provide neutral support for POCL. One study demonstrated moderate ability of POCL to predict severe illness. Two studies found poor agreement between prehospital POCL and serum lactate values. Conclusion: Limited low and moderate quality evidence suggest POCL may be feasible and helpful in predicting sepsis in the prehospital setting. However, there is sparse and inconsistent support for specific important outcomes, including accuracy.
Introduction: The Prehospital Evidence-Based Practice (PEP) program is an online, freely accessible, continuously updated Emergency Medical Services (EMS) evidence repository. This summary describes the research evidence for the identification and management of adult patients suffering from sepsis syndrome or septic shock. Methods: PubMed was searched in a systematic manner. One author reviewed titles and abstracts for relevance and two authors appraised each study selected for inclusion. Primary outcomes were extracted. Studies were scored by trained appraisers on a three-point Level of Evidence (LOE) scale (based on study design and quality) and a three-point Direction of Evidence (DOE) scale (supportive, neutral, or opposing findings based on the studies’ primary outcome for each intervention). LOE and DOE of each intervention were plotted on an evidence matrix (DOE x LOE). Results: Eighty-eight studies were included for 15 interventions listed in PEP. The interventions with the most evidence were related to identification tools (ID) (n = 26, 30%) and early goal directed therapy (EGDT) (n = 21, 24%). ID tools included Systematic Inflammatory Response Syndrome (SIRS), quick Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (qSOFA) and other unique measures. The most common primary outcomes were related to diagnosis (n = 30, 34%), mortality (n = 40, 45%) and treatment goals (e.g. time to antibiotic) (n = 14, 16%). The evidence rank for the supported interventions were: supportive-high quality (n = 1, 7%) for crystalloid infusion, supportive-moderate quality (n = 7, 47%) for identification tools, prenotification, point of care lactate, titrated oxygen, temperature monitoring, and supportive-low quality (n = 1, 7%) for vasopressors. The benefit of prehospital antibiotics and EGDT remain inconclusive with a neutral DOE. There is moderate level evidence opposing use of high flow oxygen. Conclusion: EMS sepsis interventions are informed primarily by moderate quality supportive evidence. Several standard treatments are well supported by moderate to high quality evidence, as are identification tools. However, some standard in-hospital therapies are not supported by evidence in the prehospital setting, such as antibiotics, and EGDT. Based on primary outcomes, no identification tool appears superior. This evidence analysis can guide selection of appropriate prehospital therapies.
Experimental evidence for the formation of hydrogenated fullerene molecules is presented. Films of C60 were grown on a highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (substrate) and exposed to a beam of deuterium atoms. Thermal desorption combined with mass spectrometry was used to determine the deuterated fullerene products formed, revealing a maximum degree of deuteration corresponding to C60D36. Release of D2 from the deuterated C60 film occurs at a much higher temperature than for D-saturated graphite.
Reactions on carbonaceous surfaces play an important role in processes such as H2 formation in the interstellar medium. We have investigated the adsorption of C2 molecules on a highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) surface and then exposed them to a beam of deuterium atoms in order to investigate the formation of deuterated fullerenes. Scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) was used to probe the adsorbed molecules and their deuteration. Deuteration of C2 films results in increased thermal stability of the film, relative to films of pristine C2, along with an evolution towards higher deuterated species. The STM data provide confirmatory evidence for the formation of deuterated fullerene species.
Experimental data showing superhydrogenation of neutral polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) coronene, pentacene and pentacenequinone is presented. PAH monolayers were prepared on a highly oriented pyrolytic graphite surface and subsequently exposed to a beam of atomic hydrogen. The superhydrogenated PAH species were examined via temperature programmed desorption measurements. Stable intermediate superhydrogenation degrees as well as fully superhydrogenated species are observed and the initial reaction cross section for coronene has been determined.
An insect trap constructed using three-dimensional (3D) printing technology was tested in potato (Solanum tuberosum Linnaeus; Solanaceae) fields to determine whether it could substitute for the standard yellow sticky card used to monitor Bactericera cockerelli (Šulc) (Hemiptera: Psylloidea: Triozidae). Sticky cards have shortcomings that prompted search for a replacement: cards are messy, require weekly replacement, are expensive to purchase, and accumulate large numbers of nontarget insects. Bactericera cockerelli on sticky cards also deteriorate enough that specimens cannot be tested reliably for the presence of vectored plant pathogens. A prototype trap constructed using 3D printing technology for monitoring Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psylloidea: Liviidae) was tested for monitoring B. cockerelli. The trap was designed to attract B. cockerelli visually to the trap and then funnel specimens into preservative-filled vials at the trap bottom. Prototype traps were paired against yellow sticky cards at multiple fields to compare the captures of B. cockerelli between cards and traps. The prototype trap was competitive with sticky cards early in the growing season when B. cockerelli numbers were low. We estimated that two or three prototype traps would collect as many B. cockerelli as one sticky card under these conditions. Efficacy of the prototype declined as B. cockerelli numbers increased seasonally. The prototype trap accumulated nontarget taxa that are common on sticky cards (especially Thysanoptera and Diptera), and was also found to capture taxa of possible interest in integrated pest management research, including predatory insects, parasitic Hymenoptera, and winged Aphididae (Hemiptera), suggesting that the traps could be useful outside of the purpose targeted here. We believe that 3D printing technology has substantial promise for developing monitoring tools that exploit behavioural traits of the targeted insect. Ongoing work includes the use of this technology to modify the prototype, with a focus on making it more effective at capturing psyllids and less susceptible to capture of nontarget species.
In 785 mother–child (50% male) pairs from a longitudinal epidemiological birth cohort, we investigated associations between inflammation-related epigenetic polygenic risk scores (i-ePGS), environmental exposures, cognitive function, and child and adolescent internalizing and externalizing problems. We examined prenatal and postnatal effects. For externalizing problems, one prenatal effect was found: i-ePGS at birth associated with higher externalizing problems (ages 7–15) indirectly through lower cognitive function (age 7). For internalizing problems, we identified two effects. For a prenatal effect, i-ePGS at birth associated with higher internalizing symptoms via continuity in i-ePGS at age 7. For a postnatal effect, higher postnatal adversity exposure (birth through age 7) associated with higher internalizing problems (ages 7–15) via higher i-ePGS (age 7). Hence, externalizing problems were related mainly to prenatal effects involving lower cognitive function, whereas internalizing problems appeared related to both prenatal and postnatal effects. The present study supports a link between i-ePGS and child and adolescent mental health.
Assessing the relationship between antimicrobial usage (AMU) and antimicrobial resistance (AMR) requires the accurate and precise utilisation of register data. Therefore, validation of register-based data is essential for evaluating the quality and, subsequently, the internal validity of studies based on the data.
In this study, different smoothing methods for Veterinary Medicine Statistic Program database (VetStat)-records were validated by comparing these with farm-records. Comparison between measurements included accuracy as; completeness and correctness, and precision as; a relative difference of the error, correlation with Fisher's z transformation and reliability coefficient. The most valid methods of those examined were then used in re-analyses of the abundance of AMR genes in 10 finisher batches from a previous study.
Improved accuracy was found when detailed smoothing methods were applied. Although the precision also increased, the effect was not as pronounced, as the usage estimate of all smoothing methods deviated moderately compared with the farm-registrations. Applying the most valid methods to the 10 finisher batches increased estimates of statistical model fit for aminoglycosides, lincosamides, tetracyclines and decreased estimates of statistical model fit for macrolides. The estimates of statistical model fit for sulfonamides and broad-spectrum penicillins remained the same.
Through refined data transformation, VetStat-records can be used to calculate a daily amount of AMU per pig reflecting the true usage accurately and moderately precisely, which is the foundation for calculating lifetime AMU.
The use of taxes to promote healthy nutritional behaviour has gained ground in the past decade. The present paper reviews existing applications of fiscal instruments in nutrition policy and derives some perspectives and recommendations from the experiences gained with these instruments. Many countries in different parts of the world have experiences with the taxation of sugar-sweetened beverages, in some cases in combination with taxes on unhealthy food commodities such as confectionery or high-fat foods. These tax schemes have many similarities, but also differ in their definitions of tax objects and in the applied tax rates. Denmark has been the only country in the world to operate a tax on saturated fat content in foods, from 2011 to 2012. Most of the existing food tax schemes have been introduced from fiscal motivations, with health promotion as a secondary objective, but a few have been introduced with health promotion as the primary objective. The diversity in experiences from existing tax schemes can provide valuable insights for future use of fiscal instruments to promote healthy nutrition, in terms of designing effective and efficient tax or subsidy instruments, and in terms of smooth and politically viable implementation of the instruments.
This study measures willingness to pay (WTP) for extrinsic attributes (Angus, local, DNA traceable, raised carbon friendly, and humanely treated cattle) in steak and ground beef using choice-based experiments from a national consumer survey. Belief that survey responses could have consequences on beef products offered by the steak and ground beef industry is investigated, as well as its effect on attribute WTP. For most attributes, belief in consequentiality increases WTP. Results suggest that although consequentiality believers tend to place greater importance on certain food industry issues, they are less certain about the attribute's provision actually effecting change in the industry.
The objectives were to present three approaches for calculating antimicrobial (AM) use in pigs that take into account the rearing period and rearing site, and to study the association between these measurements and phenotypical resistance and abundance of resistance genes in faeces samples from 10 finisher batches. The AM use was calculated relative to the rearing period of the batches as (i) ‘Finisher Unit Exposure’ at unit level, (ii) ‘Lifetime Exposure’ at batch level and (iii) ‘Herd Exposure’ at herd level. A significant effect on the occurrence of tetracycline resistance measured by cultivation was identified for Lifetime Exposure for the AM class: tetracycline. Furthermore, for Lifetime Exposure for the AM classes: macrolide, broad-spectrum penicillin, sulfonamide and tetracycline use as well as Herd Unit Exposure for the AM classes: aminoglycoside, lincosamide and tetracycline use, a significant effect was observed on the occurrence of genes coding for the AM resistance classes: aminoglycoside, lincosamide, macrolide, β-lactam, sulfonamide and tetracycline. No effect was observed for Finisher Unit Exposure. Overall, the study shows that Lifetime Exposure is an efficient measurement of AM use in finisher batches, and has a significant effect on the occurrence of resistance, measured either by cultivation or metagenomics.
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is characterized by problems in regulating attention and in suppressing disruptive motor activity, i.e. hyperactivity and impulsivity. We recently found evidence that aberrant distribution of posterior α band oscillations (8–12 Hz) is associated with attentional problems in ADHD. The sensorimotor cortex also produces strong 8–12 Hz band oscillations, namely the μ rhythm, and is thought to have a similar inhibitory function. Here, we now investigate whether problems in distributing α band oscillations in ADHD generalize to the μ rhythm in the sensorimotor domain.
In a group of adult ADHD (n = 17) and healthy control subjects (n = 18; aged 21–40 years) oscillatory brain activity was recorded using magnetoencephalography during a visuo-spatial attention task. Subjects had to anticipate a target with unpredictable timing and respond by pressing a button.
Preparing a motor response, the ADHD group failed to increase hemispheric μ lateralization with relatively higher μ power in sensorimotor regions not engaged in the task, as the controls did (F1,33 = 8.70, p = 0.006). Moreover, the ADHD group pre-response μ lateralization not only correlated positively with accuracy (rs = 0.64, p = 0.0052) and negatively with intra-individual reaction time variability (rs = −0.52, p = 0.033), but it also correlated negatively with the score on an ADHD rating scale (rs = −0.53, p = 0.028).
We suggest that ADHD is associated with an inability to sufficiently inhibit task-irrelevant sensorimotor areas by means of modulating μ oscillatory activity. This could explain disruptive motor activity in ADHD. These results provide further evidence that impaired modulation of α band oscillations is involved in the pathogenesis of ADHD.
The Learning Health System Network clinical data research network includes academic medical centers, health-care systems, public health departments, and health plans, and is designed to facilitate outcomes research, pragmatic trials, comparative effectiveness research, and evaluation of population health interventions.
The Learning Health System Network is 1 of 13 clinical data research networks assembled to create, in partnership with 20 patient-powered research networks, a National Patient-Centered Clinical Research Network.
Results and Conclusions
Herein, we describe the Learning Health System Network as an emerging resource for translational research, providing details on the governance and organizational structure of the network, the key milestones of the current funding period, and challenges and opportunities for collaborative science leveraging the network.