The Ophiostoma piceae species complex incorporates several economically important species, including serious tree pathogens and agents of bluestain. The species in the complex are morphologically similar, but can be distinguished from each other based on morphology, biology, mating type studies and molecular data. At present, all the species in the complex are considered to be native to the Northern Hemisphere, most of them with a very wide distribution. Only a few sporadic reports of members of the complex are available from the Southern Hemisphere, where they are believed to have been introduced, including New Zealand, Australia, Chile, Brazil and Uruguay. This study aims to confirm the identity of isolates resembling O. piceae originating from three Southern Hemisphere countries, using mating compatibility and rDNA sequencing. Our results show that O. quercus is widely distributed throughout South Africa on both native and exotic hardwoods. O. quercus is also reported for the first time from Brazil, again from a native host. O. floccosum is reported for the first time from South Africa, but from an exotic Pinus sp. These results suggest that species of the O. piceae complex are common in the Southern Hemisphere, and that current views on the origins of especially O. quercus need to be reconsidered.