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This chapter comprises the following sections: names, taxonomy, subspecies and distribution, descriptive notes, habitat, movements and home range, activity patterns, feeding ecology, reproduction and growth, behavior, parasites and diseases, status in the wild, and status in captivity.
The following position statement from the Union of the European Phoniatricians, updated on 25th May 2020 (superseding the previous statement issued on 21st April 2020), contains a series of recommendations for phoniatricians and ENT surgeons who provide and/or run voice, swallowing, speech and language, or paediatric audiology services.
This material specifically aims to inform clinical practices in countries where clinics and operating theatres are reopening for elective work. It endeavours to present a current European view in relation to common procedures, many of which fall under the aegis of aerosol generating procedures.
As evidence continues to build, some of the recommended practices will undoubtedly evolve, but it is hoped that the updated position statement will offer clinicians precepts on safe clinical practice.
Reliable predictors of extubation readiness are needed and may reduce morbidity related to extubation failure. We aimed to examine the relationship between changes in pre-extubation near-infrared spectroscopy measurements from baseline and extubation outcomes after neonatal cardiac surgery.
Materials and Methods:
In this retrospective cross-sectional multi-centre study, a secondary analysis of prospectively collected data from neonates who underwent cardiac surgery at seven tertiary-care children’s hospitals in 2015 was performed. Extubation failure was defined as need for re-intubation within 72 hours of the first planned extubation attempt. Near-infrared spectroscopy measurements obtained before surgery and before extubation in patients who failed extubation were compared to those of patients who extubated successfully using t-tests.
Near-infrared spectroscopy measurements were available for 159 neonates, including 52 with single ventricle physiology. Median age at surgery was 6 days (range: 1–29 days). A total of 15 patients (9.4 %) failed extubation. Baseline cerebral and renal near-infrared spectroscopy measurements were not statistically different between those who were successfully extubated and those who failed, but pre-extubation cerebral and renal values were significantly higher in neonates who extubated successfully. An increase from baseline to time of extubation values in cerebral oximetry saturation by ≥ 5 % had a positive predictive value for extubation success of 98.6 % (95%CI: 91.1–99.8 %).
Pre-extubation cerebral near-infrared spectroscopy measurements, when compared to baseline, were significantly associated with extubation outcomes. These findings demonstrate the potential of this tool as a valuable adjunct in assessing extubation readiness after paediatric cardiac surgery and warrant further evaluation in a larger prospective study.
Optimising short- and long-term outcomes for children and patients with CHD depends on continued scientific discovery and translation to clinical improvements in a coordinated effort by multiple stakeholders. Several challenges remain for clinicians, researchers, administrators, patients, and families seeking continuous scientific and clinical advancements in the field. We describe a new integrated research and improvement network – Cardiac Networks United – that seeks to build upon the experience and success achieved to-date to create a new infrastructure for research and quality improvement that will serve the needs of the paediatric and congenital heart community in the future. Existing gaps in data integration and barriers to improvement are described, along with the mission and vision, organisational structure, and early objectives of Cardiac Networks United. Finally, representatives of key stakeholder groups – heart centre executives, research leaders, learning health system experts, and parent advocates – offer their perspectives on the need for this new collaborative effort.
Introduction: With the current opioid crisis in Canada, presentations of acute opioid withdrawal (AOW) to emergency departments (ED) are increasing. Undertreated symptoms may result in relapse, overdose and death. Buprenorphine/naloxone (bup/nal) is a partial opioid agonist/antagonist used to mitigate symptoms of AOW, approved by Health Canad in 2007 for opioid use disorder. It is superior to clonidine, and increases follow up with addiction treatment programs when initiated in the ED. Nevertheless, in our inner-city ED in 2014, bup/nal was rarely prescribed. We aimed to increase ED physician prescribing of bup/nal for AOW by 50% over a 26-month period. Methods: Commencing in 2014, an interprofessional team of ED physicians, nurses (RN), pharmacists and QI specialists collaborated to improve the care of patients with AOW. PDSA cycles included: (1) needs assessment of emergency physicians knowledge and practices in 2014; (2) Grand Rounds and a web based information sheet in 2015; (3) ED stocking of bup/nal; (4) convenience order set to standardize AOW management; (5) Grand Rounds in 2016 and (6) peer-coaching for RNs, including case-based discussions and pocket card cognitive aids. The outcome was the number of times bup/nal was prescribed per month by ED physicians between Sept, 2015 and Oct, 2017. Data included the prescriber and use of order set as the process measure. The balancing measure was the number of patients referred to the Addiction Medicine Team who subsequently received bup/nal. Results: Bup/nal was prescribed by ED physicians 70 times, and 14 times by the Addiction Medicine Team. With each PDSA cycle, there was an increase in prescribing, with no significant shifts or trends. By all physicians, the median number of prescriptions per month was 3, and increased from 2 to 4 prescriptions/month after nursing education. There was a smaller increase in the median from 2 to 3 prescriptions/month by ED physicians alone. The order set was used 97% of the time. Conclusion: Bup/nal is safe, effective, and increases follow up with addiction programs for comprehensive assessment and treatment planning. We met our goal of increasing bup/nal prescribing in the ED for AOW by 50%. Moreover, prescribing increased by 100% with the addition of patients who received bup/nal after a referral to the Addiction Medicine Team. The intervention with the greatest impact was RN education, demonstrating that peer-coaching and teaching by an interprofessional team is key to changing practice. Unfortunately, overall prescribing remains low, and ED physicians may still be hesitant to prescribe bup/nal and defer to the specialists. It is unclear if this is due to a low number of patients presenting with AOW, patients with contraindications to bup/nal, or ED physician factors. The next step is an audit of all patients with AOW to see what percentage of those eligible are treated with bup/nal. A follow up survey to determine ongoing barriers will inform further PDSA cycles.
In the United States alone, ∼14,000 children are hospitalised annually with acute heart failure. The science and art of caring for these patients continues to evolve. The International Pediatric Heart Failure Summit of Johns Hopkins All Children’s Heart Institute was held on February 4 and 5, 2015. The 2015 International Pediatric Heart Failure Summit of Johns Hopkins All Children’s Heart Institute was funded through the Andrews/Daicoff Cardiovascular Program Endowment, a philanthropic collaboration between All Children’s Hospital and the Morsani College of Medicine at the University of South Florida (USF). Sponsored by All Children’s Hospital Andrews/Daicoff Cardiovascular Program, the International Pediatric Heart Failure Summit assembled leaders in clinical and scientific disciplines related to paediatric heart failure and created a multi-disciplinary “think-tank”. The purpose of this manuscript is to summarise the lessons from the 2015 International Pediatric Heart Failure Summit of Johns Hopkins All Children’s Heart Institute, to describe the “state of the art” of the treatment of paediatric cardiac failure, and to discuss future directions for research in the domain of paediatric cardiac failure.
Accidental and non-accidental applications of superglue in the ear, nose and oral cavity have been reported previously. Surgical removal of glue from the nose is the current practice.
This paper reports the case of an 18-year-old female, who presented with complete bilateral nasal occlusion due to deliberate self-application of superglue in both nostrils to avoid nasogastric tube insertion.
Removal of glue was accomplished with a combination of local anaesthetic cream and acetone-soaked cotton buds, which caused only minimal discomfort to the patient. All traces of glue disappeared within 10 days, without causing damage to the nasal mucosa, nasal blockage or pain.
To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of deliberate self-application of superglue in the nose. A successful non-surgical management option for the removal of glue from the nose is introduced.
Incidental findings arising from imaging research have important implications for patient safety. Magnetic resonance imaging is widespread in multiple sclerosis (MS) studies and care, yet the prevalence rate of incidental findings in MS is poorly defined. The absence of such reports in the MS literature suggests that such findings may be deemed inappropriate for documentation in research publications, or possibly, not fully reported at all.
We sought to document incidental findings from a study designed to detect features of chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency (CCSVI) in MS patients and control subjects.
Magnetic resonance images were obtained as part of a prospective study conducted between October 2010 and September 2012. Patients with MS (relapsing-remitting, primary progressive, secondary progressive), clinically isolated syndromes, and neuromyelitis optica and age/sex-matched healthy controls were included. All images were reviewed by neuro-radiologists for quality-control purposes.
Magnetic resonance imaging was successfully obtained in 166 participants (110 patients, 56 controls). Incidental abnormalities (n = 33) were detected in 15% of patients (n = 17) and 27% of controls (n = 15), comprising 19% overall (n = 32).
The prevalence of incidental findings from the MS population was not significantly different from the control population. However, the overall prevalence was high and warrants a careful management strategy for future imaging studies.
Contemporary clinical practice for the care of the prematurely born babies has markedly improved their rates of survival so that most of these babies are expected to grow up to live a healthy functional life. Since the clinical follow-up is of short duration (years), only limited data are available to relate non-communicable diseases in adult life to events and interventions in the neonatal period. The major events that could have a programming effect include: (1) intrauterine growth restriction; (2) interruption of pregnancy with change in redox and reactive oxygen species (ROS) injury; (3) nutritional and pharmacological protocols for clinical care; and (4) nutritional care in the first 2 years resulting in accelerated weight gain. The available data are discussed in the context of perturbations in one carbon (methyl transfer) metabolism and its possible programming effects. Although direct evidence for genomic methylation is not available, clinical and experimental data on impact of redox and ROS, of low protein intake, excess methionine load and vitamin A, on methyl transfers are reviewed. The consequences of antenatal and postnatal administration of glucocorticoids are presented. Analysis of the correlates of insulin sensitivity at older age, suggests that premature birth is the major contributor, and is compounded by gain in weight during infancy. We speculate that premature interruption of pregnancy and neonatal interventions by affecting one carbon metabolism may cause programming effects on the immature baby. These can be additive to the effects of intrauterine environment (growth restriction) and are compounded by accelerated growth in early infancy.
Plutonium and Pu-Ga alloys have been observed to have anomalous hydrogen solubility behavior, including a significant concentration dependence of hydrogen diffusivity in the dilute regime, a sharp drop off in the hydrogen solubility constant in the dilute regime, and a near complete absence of change in the Sieverts’ constant as the alloys are heated across phase transformation boundaries. We are investigating the possibility that a vacancy mechanism is responsible for this behavior. X-ray diffraction measurements show a 0.14% lattice contraction in Pu-2 at. % Ga alloys when they are charged with ~2 at. % hydrogen. The lattice re-expands when the hydrogen is removed. Density functional calculations show that increasing the number of hydrogen atoms associated with a vacant lattice site in Pu lowers the energy of the hydrogen-vacancy complex. These observations support the idea that vacancies are stabilized by hydrogen in the Pu lattice well beyond their thermal equilibrium concentration and could be responsible for the anomalous hydrogen response of Pu.
The “chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency” or “CCSVI” hypothesis, namely that multiple sclerosis (MS) is caused by abnormalities in the azygous and internal jugular veins with subsequent alterations in venous hemodynamics in the central nervous system, has been a dominant topic in MS care in Canada over the past year. Although there is no methodologically rigorous evidence to support this hypothesis presently, a considerable number of MS patients have undergone endovascular CCSVI procedures. Such procedures include angioplasty or stent placement in jugular and azygous veins. The safety and efficacy of these procedures is unknown, but not without risk.
Chart and patient review of five patients with confirmed MS followed in Calgary were undertaken after patients came to medical attention by referral or admission secondary to complications believed to be associated with CCSVI procedures.
Complications upon investigation and review included internal jugular vein stent thrombosis, cerebral sinovenous thrombosis, stent migration, cranial nerve injury and injury associated with venous catheterization.
As the debate about CCSVI and its relationship to MS continues, the complications and risks associated with venous stenting and angioplasty in jugular and azygous veins are becoming clearer. As increasing numbers of MS patients are seeking such procedures, these five cases represent the beginning of a wave of complications for which standardized care guidelines do not exist. Our experience and that of our colleagues will be used to develop guidelines and strategies to monitor and manage these patients as their numbers increase.
Primary care providers and researchers wishing to estimate study recruitment rates need estimates of illness frequency in primary care. Previous studies of children’s symptoms have found that presentations are most common for the symptoms: cough, fever, earache, rash, diarrhoea and vomiting. Since 2000, primary care provision in the United Kingdom has changed with the introduction of Walk-in-Centres (WICs) and new Out of Hours (OoHs) providers.
To describe the type and frequency of parent-reported presenting symptoms at a range of primary care sites between 2005 and 2007.
Parent-reported presenting symptoms, recorded in their own words, were extracted from data collected from all children aged six months to six years during recruitment to a randomised controlled trial. Presenting symptoms were coded and presented as frequency per 100 ‘consulting sessions’ by type of primary care site.
Results were evaluated from 2491 episodes of illness at 35 sites. When grouped by primary care site, respiratory symptoms were the most common at OoHs centres, the WIC and general practitioner (GP) surgeries. Trauma symptoms were common in the Emergency Department, but unexpectedly, diarrhoea and vomiting were more common in the Emergency Department and skin presenting symptoms more common at the WIC than at GP sites.
We report the relative frequency of acute symptoms by type of primary care provider. These data may be useful to those planning recruitment to primary care paediatric studies and policy makers for planning primary care service provision.
To demonstrate the importance of thorough investigation of patients with Horner syndrome, and to explain the relevant anatomy.
A 46-year-old man presented with right-sided Horner syndrome. No other abnormality was found. Magnetic resonance imaging showed calcification of the stylohyoid ligament, with a pseudoarthrosis in the mid-portion of the ligament. This pseudoarthrosis was displacing and compressing the internal carotid artery and the adjacent sympathetic chain, causing Horner syndrome.
In this case, magnetic resonance imaging was invaluable in elucidating the cause of the Horner syndrome. This is the first described case of pseudoarthrosis of a calcified stylohyoid ligament causing Horner syndrome.
Our group recently reported that smoking a regular cigarette (1.2–1.4 mg nicotine) resulted in 88% occupancy of brain α4β2* nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). However, this study did not determine whether nicotine inhalation or the many other pharmacological and behavioural factors that occur during smoking resulted in this receptor occupancy. If nicotine is solely responsible for α4β2* nAChR occupancy from smoking, then (as estimated from our previous data) smoking a denicotinized (0.05 mg nicotine) or a low-nicotine (0.6 mg nicotine) cigarette (commonly used for research and clinical purposes) would result in substantial 23% and 78% α4β2* nAChR occupancies, respectively, and a plasma nicotine concentration of 0.87 ng/ml would result in 50% α4β2* nAChR occupancy (EC50). Twenty-four positron emission tomography sessions were performed on tobacco-dependent smokers, using 2-[F-18]fluoro-A-85380 (2-FA), a radiotracer that binds to α4β2* nAChRs. 2-FA displacement was determined from before to 3.1 hours after either: no smoking, smoking a denicotinized cigarette, or smoking a low-nicotine cigarette. Analysis of this PET data revealed that smoking a denicotinized and a low-nicotine cigarette resulted in 26% and 79% α4β2* nAChR occupancies, respectively, across three regions of interest. The EC50 determined from this dataset was 0.75 ng/ml. Given the consistency of findings between our previous study with regular cigarettes and the present study, nicotine inhalation during smoking appears to be solely responsible for α4β2* nAChR occupancy, with other factors (if present at all) having either short-lived or very minor effects. Furthermore, smoking a denicotinized cigarette resulted in substantial nAChR occupancy.
The objective of this study was to determine the intracranial, cardiovascular and respiratory changes induced by conversion to high-frequency oscillator ventilation from conventional mechanical ventilation at increasing airway pressures.
In this study, 11 anaesthetized sheep had invasive cardiovascular and intracranial monitors placed. Lung injury was induced by saline lavage and head injury was induced by inflation of an intracranial balloon catheter. All animals were sequentially converted from conventional mechanical ventilation to high-frequency oscillator ventilation at target mean airway pressures of 16, 22, 28, 34 and 40 cm H2O. The mean airway pressure was achieved by adjusting positive end expiratory pressure while on conventional mechanical ventilation, and continuous distending pressures while on high-frequency oscillator ventilation. Cerebral lactate production, oxygen consumption and venous oximetry were measured and analysed in relation to changes in transcranial Doppler flow velocity. Transcranial Doppler profiles together with other physiological parameters were measured at each airway pressure.
Cerebral perfusion pressure was significantly lower during high-frequency oscillator ventilation than during conventional mechanical ventilation (CMV: 45, 34, 22, 6, 9 mmHg vs. HFOV: 33, 20, 19, 5, 5 mmHg at airway pressures mentioned above, P = 0.02). Intracranial pressure and cerebrovascular resistance increased with increasing intrathoracic pressures (P = 0.001). Cerebral metabolic indices demonstrated an initial increase in anaerobic metabolism followed by a decrease in cerebral oxygen consumption progressing to cerebral infarction as intrathoracic pressures were further increased in a stepwise fashion. Arterial PaCO2 increased significantly after converting from conventional mechanical ventilation to high-frequency oscillator ventilation (P = 0.001). However, no difference was observed between conventional mechanical ventilation and high-frequency oscillator ventilation when intracranial pressure, metabolic and transcranial Doppler indices were compared at equivalent mean airway pressures.
The use of high positive end expiratory pressure with conventional mechanical ventilation or high continuous distending pressure with high-frequency oscillator ventilation increased intracranial pressure and adversely affected cerebral metabolic indices in this ovine model. Transcranial Doppler is a useful adjunct to intracranial pressure and intracranial venous saturation monitoring when major changes in ventilation strategy are adopted.
Early embryo loss is a major cause of reproductive wastage in the dairy cow. Stronge et al. (2005) reported that low concentrations of progesterone around days 5 to 7 was associated with a low probability of embryo survival. McNeill et al. (2005) have shown that the gene encoding retinol binding-protein (RBP) is sensitive to changes in progesterone around day 7 of the oestrous cycle. However, changes in gene expression are not always translated into corresponding changes in protein expression. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between systemic progesterone and retinol binding protein expression in the uterus of cyclic cows on days 3, 7, 11 and 15 of the oestrous cycle.
This article considers the scientific process whereby new and better
clinical tests of executive function might be developed, and what form
they might take. We argue that many of the traditional tests of executive
function most commonly in use (e.g., the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test;
Stroop) are adaptations of procedures that emerged almost coincidentally
from conceptual and experimental frameworks far removed from those
currently in favour, and that the prolongation of their use has been
encouraged by a sustained period of concentration on
“construct-driven” experimentation in neuropsychology. This
resulted from the special theoretical demands made by the field of
executive function, but was not a necessary consequence, and may not even
have been a useful one. Whilst useful, these tests may not therefore be
optimal for their purpose. We consider as an alternative approach a
function-led development programme which in principle could yield tasks
better suited to the concerns of the clinician because of the transparency
afforded by increased “representativeness” and
“generalisability.” We further argue that the requirement of
such a programme to represent the interaction between the individual and
situational context might also provide useful constraints for purely
experimental investigations. We provide an example of such a programme
with reference to the Multiple Errands and Six Element tests.
(JINS, 2006, 12, 194–209.)