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To examine relationships between frequency of adolescents eating alone (dependent variable) and diet, weight status and perceived food-related parenting practices (independent variables).
Analyses of publicly available, cross-sectional, web-based survey data from adolescents.
Online consumer opinion panel.
A US nationwide sample of adolescents (12–17 years) completed Family Life, Activity, Sun, Health, and Eating (FLASHE) Study surveys to report demographic and family meal characteristics, weight, dietary intake, home food availability and perceptions of parenting practices. Parents provided information about demographic characteristics. Logistic regression analyses were used to test for associations between variables.
About 20 % of adolescents reported often eating alone (n 343) v. not often eating alone (n 1309). Adjusted odds of adolescents often eating alone were significantly higher for non-Hispanic Black compared with non-Hispanic White adolescents (OR=1·7) and for overweight or obese compared with normal- or underweight adolescents (OR=1·6). Adjusted odds of adolescents eating alone were significantly lower for those who reported that fruits and vegetables were often/always available in the home (OR=0·65), for those who perceived that parents had expectations about fruit and vegetable intake (OR=0·71) and for those who agreed with parental authority to make rules about intake of junk food/sugary drinks (OR=0·71). Junk food and sugary drink daily intake frequency was positively associated with often eating alone.
Often eating alone was related to being overweight/obese, having less healthy dietary intake and perceptions of less supportive food-related parenting practices.
To compare the strength of district wellness policies with corresponding school-level practices reported by principals and teachers.
District-level wellness policy data were collected from school district websites and, if not available online, by requests made to district administrators in the autumn of 2013. The strength of district policies was scored using the Wellness School Assessment Tool. School-level data were drawn from the 2012 Minnesota School Health Profiles principal and teacher surveys and the National Center for Education Statistics Common Core Data. Generalized estimating equations which accounted for school-level demographics and the nesting of up to two schools within some districts were used to examine ten district policy items and fourteen school-level practices of relevance to nutrition standards, nutrition education and wellness promotion, and physical activity promotion.
State-wide sample of 180 districts and 212 public schools in Minnesota, USA.
The mean number of energy-dense, nutrient-poor snack foods and beverages available for students to purchase at school was inversely related to the strength of district wellness policies regulating vending machines and school stores (P=0·01). The proportion of schools having a joint use agreement for shared use of physical activity facilities was inversely related to the strength of district policies addressing community use of school facilities (P=0·03). No associations were found between the strength of other district policies and school-level practices.
Nutrition educators and other health professionals should assist schools in periodically assessing their wellness practices to ensure compliance with district wellness policies and environments supportive of healthy behaviours.
To determine whether improper high-level disinfection practices during endoscopy procedures resulted in bloodborne viral infection transmission.
Retrospective cohort study.
Four Veterans Affairs medical centers (VAMCs).
Veterans who underwent colonoscopy and laryngoscopy (ear, nose, and throat [ENT]) procedures from 2003 to 2009.
Patients were identified through electronic health record searches and serotested for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and hepatitis B virus (HBV). Newly discovered case patients were linked to a potential source with known identical infection, whose procedure occurred no more than 1 day prior to the case patient's procedure. Viral genetic testing was performed for case/proximate pairs to determine relatedness.
Of 10,737 veterans who underwent endoscopy at 4 VAMCs, 9,879 patients agreed to viral testing. Of these, 90 patients were newly diagnosed with 1 or more viral bloodborne pathogens (BBPs). There were no case/proximate pairings found for patients with either HIV or HBV; 24 HCV case/proximate pairings were found, of which 7 case patients and 8 proximate patients had sufficient viral load for further genetic testing. Only 2 of these cases, both of whom underwent laryngoscopy, and their 4 proximates agreed to further testing. None of the 4 remaining proximate patients who underwent colonoscopy agreed to further testing. Mean genetic distance between the 2 case patients and 4 proximate patients ranged from 13.5% to 19.1%.
Our investigation revealed that exposure to improperly reprocessed ENT endoscopes did not result in viral transmission in those patients who had viral genetic analysis performed. Any potential transmission of BBPs from colonoscopy remains unknown.
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