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Although executive and other cognitive deficits have been found in patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD), whether these have brain functional correlates has been little studied. This study aimed to examine patterns of task-related activation and de-activation during the performance of a working memory task in patients with the disorder.
Sixty-seven DSM-IV BPD patients and 67 healthy controls underwent fMRI during the performance of the n-back task. Linear models were used to obtain maps of within-group activations and areas of differential activation between the groups.
On corrected whole-brain analysis, there were no activation differences between the BPD patients and the healthy controls during the main 2-back v. baseline contrast, but reduced activation was seen in the precentral cortex bilaterally and the left inferior parietal cortex in the 2-back v. 1-back contrast. The patients showed failure of de-activation affecting the medial frontal cortex and the precuneus, plus in other areas. The changes did not appear to be attributable to previous history of depression, which was present in nearly half the sample.
In this study, there was some, though limited, evidence for lateral frontal hypoactivation in BPD during the performance of an executive task. BPD also appears to be associated with failure of de-activation in key regions of the default mode network.
An urgent need in dietary assessment is the development of short tools that provide valid assessments of dietary quality for use in time-limited settings. The present study assessed concurrent and construct validity of the short Diet Quality Screener (sDQS) and brief Mediterranean Diet Screener (bMDSC) questionnaires.
Relative validity was measured by comparing three dietary quality indices – the Diet Quality Index (DQI), the modified Mediterranean Diet Score (mMDS) and the Antioxidant Score (ANTOX-S) – derived from the two questionnaires with those from multiple 24 h recalls over 12 months. Construct validity was demonstrated by correlations between average nutrient intake recorded on multiple 24 h recalls and the DQI, mMDS and ANTOX-S derived by the short screeners.
Both short questionnaires were administered to 102 participants recruited from a population-based survey in Spain.
DQI, mMDS and ANTOX-S correlated (P < 0·001) with the corresponding 24 h recall indices (r = 0·61, 0·40 and 0·45, respectively). Limits of agreement lay between 96 and 126 %, 59 and 144 % and 61 and 118 % for the DQI, ANTOX-S and mMDS, respectively. Dietary intakes of fibre, vitamin C, vitamin E, Mg and K reported on the 24 h recalls were positively associated (P < 0·04) with the DQI, mMDS and ANTOX-S indices.
The sDQS and bMDSC provide reasonable approximations to food-based dietary indices and accurately situate subjects within the indices constructed for the present validation study.
The aim of the present study was to assess the concurrent and construct validity of two diet-quality indices, a modified Mediterranean diet score (mMDS) and a Mediterranean-like diet score (MLDS) additionally incorporating unhealthy food choices, as determined by an FFQ.
A validation study assessing FFQ intake estimates compared with ten or more unannounced 24 h recalls. Pearson's correlation coefficients, intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC), Bland–Altman plots and the limits of agreement method were used to assess the between-method agreement of scores. Construct validity was shown using associations between nutrient intakes derived from multiple 24 h recalls and the mMDS and MLDS derived from the FFQ.
A total of 107 consecutively selected participants from a population-based cross-sectional survey.
Pearson's correlations for the energy-adjusted mMDS and MLDS compared with multiple recalls were 0·48 and 0·62, respectively. The average FFQ energy-adjusted mMDS and MLDS were 102 % and 98 % of the recall-based mMDS and MLDS estimates, respectively. The FFQ under- and overestimated dietary recall estimates of the energy-adjusted MLDS by 28 % and 25 %, respectively, with slightly wider boundaries for the mMDS (31 % and 34 %). The ICC, which assesses absolute agreement, was similar to Pearson's correlations (mMDS = 0·48 and MLDS = 0·61). The mean differences between methods were similar across the range of average ratings for both scores, indicating the absence of bias. The FFQ-derived mMDS and MLDS correlated in the anticipated directions with intakes of eleven (73·3 %) and thirteen of fifteen nutrients (86·7 %), respectively.
The FFQ provides valid estimates of diet quality as assessed by the mMDS and MLDS.
We estimated the impact of hip replacement-associated surgical site infection (SSI) on morbidity and length of stay.
This was a pairwise matched (1 : 1) case-control study nested in a cohort. All patients who underwent hip replacement from January 1, 2000, to June 30, 2004, were prospectively enrolled for the nested case-control design analysis and were monitored from the time of surgery until hospital discharge, including any patients readmitted because of infection.
Among the 1,260 hip replacements performed, 28 SSIs were detected, yielding a crude SSI rate of 2.2%. The median excess length of stay attributable to SSI was 32.5 days (P< .001), whereas the median prolonged postoperative stay due to SSI was 31 days (P< .001). Deep-wound SSI was the type that prolonged hospital stay the most (up to 49 days). Of the patients who developed an SSI, 4 required revision surgery, for an SSI-related morbidity rate of 14.3%.
SSI prolongs hospital stay; however, although hospital stay is a rough indicator of the cost of this complication, to accurately estimate the costs of SSI, we would need to consider individual costs in a linear regression model adjusted for all possible confounding factors.
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