To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Several countries maintain universal health coverage, which implies responsibility to organize delivery formats of healthcare services and products for citizens. In Brazil, the health system has a principle of universal access for more than 30 years, but many deficiencies remain and the country observes a day practice for those seeking judicial decisions to determine provision of healthcare.
There is mixed evidence on increasing rates of psychiatric disorders and symptoms during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic in 2020. We evaluated pandemic-related psychopathology and psychiatry diagnoses and their determinants in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Health (ELSA-Brasil) São Paulo Research Center.
Between pre-pandemic ELSA-Brasil assessments in 2008–2010 (wave-1), 2012–2014 (wave-2), 2016–2018 (wave-3) and three pandemic assessments in 2020 (COVID-19 waves in May–July, July–September, and October–December), rates of common psychiatric symptoms, and depressive, anxiety, and common mental disorders (CMDs) were compared using the Clinical Interview Scheduled-Revised (CIS-R) and the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21 (DASS-21). Multivariable generalized linear models, adjusted by age, gender, educational level, and ethnicity identified variables associated with an elevated risk for mental disorders.
In 2117 participants (mean age 62.3 years, 58.2% females), rates of CMDs and depressive disorders did not significantly change over time, oscillating from 23.5% to 21.1%, and 3.3% to 2.8%, respectively; whereas rate of anxiety disorders significantly decreased (2008–2010: 13.8%; 2016–2018: 9.8%; 2020: 8%). There was a decrease along three wave-COVID assessments for depression [β = −0.37, 99.5% confidence interval (CI) −0.50 to −0.23], anxiety (β = −0.37, 99.5% CI −0.48 to −0.26), and stress (β = −0.48, 99.5% CI −0.64 to −0.33) symptoms (all ps < 0.001). Younger age, female sex, lower educational level, non-white ethnicity, and previous psychiatric disorders were associated with increased odds for psychiatric disorders, whereas self-evaluated good health and good quality of relationships with decreased risk.
No consistent evidence of pandemic-related worsening psychopathology in our cohort was found. Indeed, psychiatric symptoms slightly decreased along 2020. Risk factors representing socioeconomic disadvantages were associated with increased odds of psychiatric disorders.
This study aims to investigate the dietary share of ultra-processed foods and its association with the non-communicable disease (NCD)-related nutrient profile of adult and elderly populations in Portugal. Cross-sectional data from the National Food, Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey (2015–2016) of the Portuguese population were analysed. Dietary intake was assessed by two non-consecutive 24-h recalls, and food items were classified according to the NOVA system. We estimated the percentage of dietary energy provided by each of the NOVA food groups and assessed the NCD-related nutrient profile of the overall diet across quintiles of ultra-processed food consumption. Weighted t tests, besides crude and adjusted linear and Poisson regressions, were performed. Ultra-processed foods contributed to around 24 and 16 % of daily energy intake for adults and elderly, respectively. In both groups, as the consumption of ultra-processed foods increased, the dietary content of free sugars, total fats and saturated fats increased, while the dietary content of protein decreased. In adults, total energy intake, dietary energy density and content of carbohydrates also increased as the consumption of ultra-processed foods increased, while the dietary content of fibre, Na and K decreased. The prevalence of those exceeding the upper limits recommended for free sugars and saturated fats increased by 544 and 153 % in adults and 619 and 60 % in elderly, when comparing the lowest with the highest quintile of ultra-processed food consumption. Such a scenario demands for effective strategies addressing food processing in the Portuguese population to improve their diet quality and prevention against diet-related NCD.
The Zika virus is a newly emerging infection associated with increasingly large outbreaks especially in countries such as Brazil where an estimated 326,224 cases were confirmed between 2015 and 2018. Common symptoms associated with Zika include headache, conjunctivitis, fever, erythema, myalgia, vomiting, diarrhea, and abdominal pain. However, the symptoms are usually self-limiting and last on average for 4 to 7 days, with patients typically not accessing the public healthcare system (SUS). In severe cases, symptoms include neurological disorders and neonatal malformations. A future Zika vaccine can contribute to decreasing the number of cases and associated complications. However, this has to be balanced against continuing costs to control this and other vector borne diseases. Consequently, information about consumers’ willingness to pay (WTP) for a hypothetical Zika vaccine can help with price setting discussions in Brazil starting with the private market before being considered within SUS.
A cross-sectional study was conducted among residents in one of the main provinces of Brazil (Minas Gerais) regarding their WTP for a hypothetical Zika vaccine with agreed characteristics. This included a mean effective protection of 80 percent, with the possibility of some local and systemic side-effects. The discussed price was USD 56.41 (BRL 180.00) per vaccination as this figure was utilized in a previous WTP study for a dengue vaccine.
Five hundred and seventeen people were interviewed. However, thirty would not be vaccinated even if the vaccine was free. Most of the resultant interviewees (489) were female (58.2 percent), were employed (71.2 percent), had private health insurance (52.7 percent), had household incomes above twice the minimum wage (69.8 percent) and did not have Zika (96.9 percent). The median individual maximum WTP for this hypothetical Zika vaccine was USD 31.34 (BRL 100.00).
WTP research can contribute to decision-making about possible prices alongside other economic criteria once a Zika vaccine becomes available in Brazil alongside other programmes to control the virus.
Objectives: Health technology financing is often based on randomized controlled trials (RCTs), which are often the same ones used for licensing. Because they are designed to show the best possible results, typically Phase III studies are conducted under ideal and highly controlled conditions. Consequently, it is not surprising that technologies do not always perform in real life in the same way as controlled conditions. Because financing (and price paid) decisions can be made with overestimated results, health authorities need to ask whether health systems achieve the results they expect when they choose to pay for a technology. The optimal way to answer this question is to assess the performance of financed technologies in real-world settings. Health technology performance assessment (HTpA) refers to the systematic evaluation of the properties, effects, and/or impact of a health intervention or health technology in the real world to provide information for investment/disinvestment decisions and clinical guideline updates. The objective is to describe the development and principal aspects of the Guideline for HTpA commissioned by the Brazilian Ministry of Health.
Methods: Our methods used include extensive literature review, refinement with experts across countries, and public consultation.
Results: A comprehensive guideline was developed, which has been adopted by the Brazilian government.
Conclusion: We believe the guideline, with its particular focus on disinvestment, along with the creation of a specific program for HTpA, will allow the institutionalization and continuous improvement of the scientific methods to use real-world evidence to optimize available resources not only in Brazil but across countries.
To develop a software to plan and evaluate school meals according to the main national and international standards for foods and nutrition.
Development of software.
Public schools, Portugal.
School meals for students.
The System of Planning and Evaluation of School Meals (SPARE) is a software that allows the planning of school meals in an effective and organized way, according to the main national and international standards for food and nutrition. The regular use of this tool enables the evaluation, monitoring and verification towards continuous improvement of the quality of school meals.
The SPARE software aims to promote healthy eating by focusing on the planning and production of safe and adequate meals in the school environment. This software can be adapted to different age groups and to different contexts, attending to specific nutritional and food standards.
The domestic dog is the reservoir host of Leishmania infantum, the causative agent of zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis endemic in Mediterranean Europe. Targeted control requires predictive risk maps of canine leishmaniasis (CanL), which are now explored. We databased 2187 published and unpublished surveys of CanL in southern Europe. A total of 947 western surveys met inclusion criteria for analysis, including serological identification of infection (504, 369 dogs tested 1971–2006). Seroprevalence was 23 2% overall (median 10%). Logistic regression models within a GIS framework identified the main environmental predictors of CanL seroprevalence in Portugal, Spain, France and Italy, or in France alone. A 10-fold cross-validation approach determined model capacity to predict point-values of seroprevalence and the correct seroprevalence class (<5%, 5–20%, >20%). Both the four-country and France-only models performed reasonably well for predicting correctly the <5% and >20% seroprevalence classes (AUC >0 70). However, the France-only model performed much better for France than the four-country model. The four-country model adequately predicted regions of CanL emergence in northern Italy (<5% seroprevalence). Both models poorly predicted intermediate point seroprevalences (5–20%) within regional foci, because surveys were biased towards known rural foci and Mediterranean bioclimates. Our recommendations for standardizing surveys would permit higher-resolution risk mapping.
The science of extra-solar planets is one of the most rapidly changing areas of astrophysics and since 1995 the number of planets known has increased by almost two orders of magnitude. A combination of ground-based surveys and dedicated space missions has resulted in 560-plus planets being detected, and over 1200 that await confirmation. NASA's Kepler mission has opened up the possibility of discovering Earth-like planets in the habitable zone around some of the 100,000 stars it is surveying during its 3 to 4-year lifetime. The new ESA's Gaia mission is expected to discover thousands of new planets around stars within 200 parsecs of the Sun. The key challenge now is moving on from discovery, important though that remains, to characterisation: what are these planets actually like, and why are they as they are?
In the past ten years, we have learned how to obtain the first spectra of exoplanets using transit transmission and emission spectroscopy. With the high stability of Spitzer, Hubble, and large ground-based telescopes the spectra of bright close-in massive planets can be obtained and species like water vapour, methane, carbon monoxide and dioxide have been detected. With transit science came the first tangible remote sensing of these planetary bodies and so one can start to extrapolate from what has been learnt from Solar System probes to what one might plan to learn about their faraway siblings. As we learn more about the atmospheres, surfaces and near-surfaces of these remote bodies, we will begin to build up a clearer picture of their construction, history and suitability for life.
The Exoplanet Characterisation Observatory, EChO, will be the first dedicated mission to investigate the physics and chemistry of Exoplanetary Atmospheres. By characterising spectroscopically more bodies in different environments we will take detailed planetology out of the Solar System and into the Galaxy as a whole.
EChO has now been selected by the European Space Agency to be assessed as one of four M3 mission candidates.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.