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To examine temporal trends and determinants of discretionary salt use in the USA.
Multiple logistic regression was used to assess temporal trends in discretionary salt use at the table and during home cooking/preparation, adjusting for demographic characteristics, using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003–2012. Prevalence and determinants of discretionary salt use in 2009–2012 were also examined.
Participants answered salt use questions after completing a 24 h dietary recall in a mobile examination centre.
Nationally representative sample of non-institutionalized US children and adults, aged ≥2 years.
From 2003 to 2012, the proportion of the population who reported using salt ‘very often’ declined; from 18 % to 12 % for use at the table (P<0·01) and from 42 % to 37 % during home cooking (P<0·02). While one-third of the population reported never adding salt at the table, most used it during home cooking/preparation (93 %). Use of discretionary salt was least commonly reported among young children and older adults and demographic and health subgroups at risk of CVD.
While most people reported using salt during home cooking/preparation, a minority reported use at the table. Reported ‘very often’ discretionary salt use has declined. That discretionary salt use is less common among those at risk of CVD suggests awareness of messages to limit Na intake.
Poor adherence to recommended intake protocols is common and a top challenge for micronutrient powder (MNP) programmes globally. Identifying modifiable predictors of intake adherence could inform the design and implementation of MNP projects.
We assessed high MNP intake adherence among children who had received MNP ≥2 months ago and consumed ≥1 sachet (n 771). High MNP intake adherence was defined as maternal report of child intake ≥45 sachets. We used logistic regression to assess demographic, intervention components and perception-of-use factors associated with high MNP intake.
Four districts of Nepal piloting an integrated infant and young child feeding and MNP project.
Children aged 6–23 months were eligible to receive sixty MNP sachets every 6 months with suggested intake of one sachet daily for 60 d. Cross-sectional surveys representative of children aged 6–23 months were conducted.
Receiving a reminder card was associated with increased odds for high intake (OR=2·18, 95 % CI 1·14, 4·18); exposure to other programme components was not associated with high intake. Mothers perceiving ≥1 positive effects in their child after MNP use was also associated with high intake (OR=6·55, 95 % CI 4·29, 10·01). Perceiving negative affects was not associated; however, the child not liking the food with MNP was associated with lower odds of high intake (OR=0·12, 95 % CI 0·08, 0·20).
Behaviour change intervention strategies tailored to address these modifiable predictors could potentially increase MNP intake adherence.
To examine the association between overweight and obesity and serum ferritin among women of reproductive age (15–49 years) in Nicaragua, considering the effect of α1-acid glycoprotein (AGP), a marker of inflammation.
We analysed data from the 2004–05 Nicaraguan Integrated Surveillance System for Nutrition Interventions. Three logistic regression models were analysed with low serum ferritin (<15 μg/l) as the dependent variable: (i) overweight or obese status and covariates; (ii) model 1 plus AGP; and (iii) model 1 restricted to only women with normal AGP levels (≤1·0 g/l).
Included in this analysis were 832 non-pregnant mother/caregivers (15–49 years) surveyed in 2004–2005.
In the sample, prevalence of overweight and obesity was 31·8 % and 19·2 %, respectively, and 27·6 % had low serum ferritin. In model 1, the adjusted OR of low serum ferritin was 0·74 (95 % CI 0·52, 1·05) for overweight women and 0·42 (95 % CI 0·26, 0·65) for obese women. In model 2, AGP was significantly independently associated with low serum ferritin (adjusted OR=0·56, 95 % CI 0·34, 0·92) while the adjusted OR for overweight and obesity were largely unchanged. Excluding women with elevated AGP did not appreciably affect the relationship between overweight or obesity and low serum ferritin (model 3).
Overall, in this population of reproductive-age women, obese women were less likely to have low serum ferritin levels, and this was independent of inflammation as measured by AGP.
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