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Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is a group of positional and geometric isomers of conjugated dienoic derivatives of linoleic acid. The present study was designed to determine whether 14-week CLA supplementation as triacylglycerols (3·76 g) with a 50 : 50 combination of the two main isomers (35 % cis-9, trans-11 and 35 % trans-10, cis-12) added to flavoured yoghurt-like products was able to alter body composition in healthy subjects and to alter the expression of several key adipose tissue genes (PPAR γ, lipoprotein lipase (LPL), hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) and uncoupling protein 2 (UCP-2)). Forty-four healthy subjects were randomly assigned to consume daily either a CLA-supplemented yoghurt-like product or a placebo yoghurt for 98 d. There were no significant effects of CLA supplementation on body weight, fat mass or free fat mass. Basal energy expenditure expressed as kg free fat mass increased significantly in the CLA group (123·3 (sem 2·5) kJ/kg free fat mass per d on day 98 v. 118·7 (sem 2·3) kJ/kg free fat mass per d on day 0, P = 0·03). PPAR γ mRNA gene expression increased significantly with CLA supplementation (53 (sem 20) %, P < 0·01) and a significant reduction in mRNA levels of HSL was observed ( − 42 (sem 7) %, P = 0·01). The levels of UCP-2 and LPL mRNA were not affected. The present results suggest that a 98 d supplementation diet with a 50 : 50 mixture of the two CLA isomers cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12 in a dairy product was unable to alter body composition, although a significant increase in the RMR has been induced. Moreover, changes in mRNA PPAR γ and HSL in adipose tissue were recorded.
The present study evaluates the influence of different amounts of fat added to starch on postprandial glucose metabolism (exogenous and endogenous). Nine women (24 (SE 2) YEARS OLD, BMI 20·4 (se 0·7) kg/m2) ingested 1 week apart 75 g glucose equivalent of 13C-labelled starch in the form of pasta without (low fat; LF) or with 15 (medium fat; MF) or 40 (high fat; HF) g sunflower oil. During the 7 h following meal consumption, plasma glucose, non-esterified fatty acids, triacylglycerols (TG) and insulin concentrations, and endogenous (using [6,6-2H2]glucose) and exogenous glucose turnover were determined. With MF and HF meals, a lower postprandial glucose peak was observed, but with a secondary recovery. A decrease in exogenous glucose appearance explained lower glycaemia in HF. At 4 h after the HF meal the insulin, insulin:glucose and postprandial blood TG were higher than those measured after the LF and MF meals. Despite higher insulinaemia, total glucose disappearance was similar and endogenous glucose production was suppressed less than after the LF and MF meals, suggesting insulin resistance. Thus, the addition of a large amount of fat appears to be unfavourable to glucose metabolism because it leads to a feature of insulin resistance. On the contrary, the MF meal did not have these adverse effects, but it was able to decrease the initial glycaemic peak.
Short-term (2 weeks) effects of the consumption of a high-energy (2920 kJ (700 kcal)) or low-energy (418 kJ (100 kcal)) breakfast on dietary patterns, blood variables and energy expenditure (indirect calorimetry) were compared in ten free-living healthy young men in a crossover study. During the high-energy breakfast, total energy intake was increased, the intake of protein and lipids was unchanged but the intake of carbohydrates was increased. Thus, 48 (SD 4) % OF ENERGY CAME FROM CARBOHYDRATES IN THE HIGH-ENERGY BREAKFAST COMPARED WITH 42 (sd 5) % in the low-energy breakfast. Excluding breakfast, the macronutrient composition of the diet remained identical in the two situations. After the high-energy breakfast, fasting serum triacylglycerol concentration was higher and HDL-cholesterol concentration was lower than after the low-energy breakfast. A high glycaemic response was observed in the morning after the high-energy breakfast period, while there was a peak of free fatty acids after the low-energy breakfast. The high-energy breakfast induced a strong inhibition of fat oxidation throughout the day. Although long-term adaptation to a high-energy breakfast cannot be excluded, the high-energy breakfast in this study did not appear to be favourable to health. Our results do not support the current advice to consume more energy at breakfast.
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