The Eetscore FFQ was developed to score the Dutch Healthy Diet index 2015 (DHD2015-index) representing the Dutch food-based dietary guidelines of 2015. This paper describes the development of the Eetscore FFQ, a short screener assessing diet quality, examines associations between diet quality and participants’ characteristics, and evaluates the relative validity and reproducibility of the Eetscore FFQ in a cross-sectional study with Dutch adults. The study sample consisted of 751 participants, aged 19–91 years, recruited from the EetMeetWeet research panel. The mean DHD2015-index score based on the Eetscore FFQ of the total sample was 111 (sd 17·5) out of a maximum score of 160 points and was significantly higher in women than in men, positively associated with age and education level, and inversely associated with BMI. The Kendall’s tau-b coefficient of the DHD2015-index between the Eetscore FFQ and the full-length FFQ (on average 1·7-month interval, n 565) was 0·51 (95 % CI 0·47, 0·55), indicating an acceptable ranking ability. The intraclass correlation coefficient between DHD2015-index scores derived from two repeated Eetscore FFQ (on average 3·8-month interval, n 343) was 0·91 (95 % CI 0·89, 0·93) suggesting a very good reproducibility. In conclusion, the Eetscore FFQ was considered acceptable in ranking participants according to their diet quality compared with the full-length FFQ and showed good to excellent reproducibility.