To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is used increasingly worldwide for the treatment of Parkinson's disease, dystonia, tremor and pain. As with any implanted system, however, DBS introduces a new series of problems related to its hardware. Infection, malfunction and lead migration or fracture may increase patient morbidity and should be considered when evaluating the risk/benefit ratio of this therapy. This work highlights several factors felt to increase DBS hardware complications.
The authors undertook a prospective analysis of their patients receiving this therapy in two Canadian centres, over a four-year period.
One hundred and forty-four patients received 204 permanent electrode implants. The average follow-up duration was 24 months. Complications related to the DBS hardware were seen in 11 patients (7.6%). There were two lead fractures (1.4%) and nine infections (6.2%) including two erosions (1.4%). There was a significantly greater risk of infection in patients who underwent staged procedures with externalization. In patients with straight scalp incisions, the rate of infection was higher than that seen with curved incisions.
Hardware complications were not common. A period of externalization of the electrodes for a stimulation trial was associated with an increased infection rate. It is also possible that a straight scalp incision instead of curvilinear incision may lead to an increase in the rate of infection. With a clear understanding of the accepted DBS device indications and their potential complications, patients may make a truly informed decision about DBS technology.
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is increasingly used to treat a variety of neurological conditions (e.g. movement disorders and chronic pain). This prospective study was designed to detect electrocardiogram (ECG) artifacts induced by deep brain stimulation and to investigate which factors (patient disease, electrode position within the brain or type of stimulation) produced these artifacts.
Twelve patients (four women, eight men) with deep brain stimulators were enrolled in the study. Patients were selected to represent the common indications for DBS (Parkinson's disease, tremor, dystonia), the common electrode locations (pallidum, thalamus, subthalamic nucleus) and the two types of stimulation (monopolar, bipolar). Patients had one ECG with the DBS turned 'on'and another with the DBS turned 'off'. The ECGs were then randomized and read by a cardiologist blinded to the status of the patient and DBS and artifacts were noted to be either present or absent.
The six patients using monopolar stimulation all had artifacts on their electrocardiograms. These artifacts were severe enough to interfere with ECG interpretation. There were no artifacts detected in the six patients using bipolar stimulation. Electrode location and patient disease appeared to have no effect on ECG artifact.
Deep brain stimulation can cause ECG artifacts when monopolar settings are used. These artifacts are not present with bipolar settings or when the DBS is turned 'off'. Knowledge of these potential ECG artifacts and how to avoid them is essential to facilitate accurate ECG interpretation.
The authors present two cases of movement disorders caused by neuroepithelial cysts and highlight their management. Neuroepithelial cysts are ependymal or epithelial lined fluid collections of unknown etiology within the central nervous system parenchyma with no obvious ventricular or subarachnoid connection. Most cysts are asymptomatic, however, some present with seizures, mass effect, or rarely with movement disorders.
The first patient, a 27-year-old female, presented with progressive weakness, dystonic posturing, tremor, ballismus and choreoathetotic movements of her right upper extremity. Her symptoms improved after stereotactic drainage of a neuroepithelial cyst in her basal ganglia but recurred within a year. The second case, a 56-year-old female, presented with diplopia, nystagmus, gait imbalance and hemiparesis. Her symptoms improved after stereotactic drainage of a midbrain neuroepithelial cyst. The cyst reaccumulated over the next few years and she became symptomatic with left arm tremor and facial weakness. Aspiration was again performed with symptomatic improvement for nine months. Her tremor recurred and a cyst access device was placed stereotactically. She improved and has remained stable for over a year.
Simple stereotactic drainage of neuroepithelial cysts has a high recurrence rate. The authors recommend considering placement of a drainage device to facilitate aspiration of the cyst fluid during follow-up, if needed.
Trigeminal neuralgia (TN) has a higher incidence among patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) than in the general population. This cohort of MS patients with TN presents a series of management challenges including poor tolerance of antineuralgic medications and occasional bilateral presentation. We analyzed our surgical series of MS patients presenting with TN who were treated with percutaneous radiofrequency rhizotomy to estimate the success, failure and recurrence rate of this procedure for those patients.
Surgical reports were retrospectively reviewed between the years 1996-2000. Patients with MS and TN who received a percutaneous rhizotomy during that time were included in the study and followed until the end of 2002. Data regarding age, sex, duration of MS and pain, response to medical treatment, pain distribution and surgical outcome were evaluated.
There were thirteen patients with MS and medically refractory TN treated with percutaneous radiofrequency rhizotomy. The average age at diagnosis for MS was 41 with TN beginning an average of eight years later. Following rhizotomy, complete pain relief without the need for any medication was achieved in 81% of the patients. The addition of medications resulted in pain control in the remaining patients. During a mean follow-up period of 52 months, there was a 50% recurrence rate. There were no complications related to the procedure and the associated facial numbness was well-tolerated.
Percutaneous radiofrequency rhizotomy is a safe and effective method for the treatment of TN in patients with MS. The unique susceptibility of this cohort to the side effects of antineuralgic medications may require early consideration of rhizotomy.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.