Single-phase concentrated solid solution alloys (SP-CSAs) are newly emerging advanced structural materials, which are defined as multiprincipal element solid solutions. SP-CSAs with more than four components in equimolar or near-equimolar ratios are also referred to as high-entropy alloys due to their high configurational entropy. SP-CSAs are potential structural materials in advanced nuclear energy systems due to their attractive mechanical properties. Therefore many investigations have been carried out to study the irradiation-induced structural damage and defect behavior in SP-CSAs. This paper reviews recent experimental results on the irradiation responses of various SP-CSAs, focusing on the accumulation of irradiation-induced structural damage, void swelling resistance, and solute segregation behavior. In addition, the characteristic defect behavior in SP-CSAs derived from ab initio and molecular dynamics simulations, as well as the challenges in the applications of SP-CSAs for the nuclear energy systems are briefly discussed.