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Childhood maltreatment has been suggested to have an adverse impact on neurodevelopment, including microstructural brain abnormalities. Existing neuroimaging findings remain inconsistent and heterogeneous. We aim to explore the most prominent and robust cortical thickness (CTh) and gray matter volume (GMV) alterations associated with childhood maltreatment. A systematic search on relevant studies was conducted through September 2022. The whole-brain coordinate-based meta-analysis (CBMA) on CTh and GMV studies were conducted using the seed-based d mapping (SDM) software. Meta-regression analysis was subsequently applied to investigate potential associations between clinical variables and structural changes. A total of 45 studies were eligible for inclusion, including 11 datasets on CTh and 39 datasets on GMV, consisting of 2550 participants exposed to childhood maltreatment and 3739 unexposed comparison subjects. Individuals with childhood maltreatment exhibited overlapped deficits in the median cingulate/paracingulate gyri simultaneously revealed by both CTh and GM studies. Regional cortical thinning in the right anterior cingulate/paracingulate gyri and the left middle frontal gyrus, as well as GMV reductions in the left supplementary motor area (SMA) was also identified. No greater regions were found for either CTh or GMV. In addition, several neural morphology changes were associated with the average age of the maltreated individuals. The median cingulate/paracingulate gyri morphology might serve as the most robust neuroimaging feature of childhood maltreatment. The effects of early-life trauma on the human brain predominantly involved in cognitive functions, socio-affective functioning and stress regulation. This current meta-analysis enhanced the understanding of neuropathological changes induced by childhood maltreatment.
Coastal eutrophication and hypoxia remain a persistent environmental crisis despite the great efforts to reduce nutrient loading and mitigate associated environmental damages. Symptoms of this crisis have appeared to spread rapidly, reaching developing countries in Asia with emergences in Southern America and Africa. The pace of changes and the underlying drivers remain not so clear. To address the gap, we review the up-to-date status and mechanisms of eutrophication and hypoxia in global coastal oceans, upon which we examine the trajectories of changes over the 40 years or longer in six model coastal systems with varying socio-economic development statuses and different levels and histories of eutrophication. Although these coastal systems share common features of eutrophication, site-specific characteristics are also substantial, depending on the regional environmental setting and level of social-economic development along with policy implementation and management. Nevertheless, ecosystem recovery generally needs greater reduction in pressures compared to that initiated degradation and becomes less feasible to achieve past norms with a longer time anthropogenic pressures on the ecosystems. While the qualitative causality between drivers and consequences is well established, quantitative attribution of these drivers to eutrophication and hypoxia remains difficult especially when we consider the social economic drivers because the changes in coastal ecosystems are subject to multiple influences and the cause–effect relationship is often non-linear. Such relationships are further complicated by climate changes that have been accelerating over the past few decades. The knowledge gaps that limit our quantitative and mechanistic understanding of the human-coastal ocean nexus are identified, which is essential for science-based policy making. Recognizing lessons from past management practices, we advocate for a better, more efficient indexing system of coastal eutrophication and an advanced regional earth system modeling framework with optimal modules of human dimensions to facilitate the development and evaluation of effective policy and restoration actions.
We present a theoretical study of mode evolution in high-power distributed side-coupled cladding-pumped (DSCCP) fiber amplifiers. A semi-analytical model taking the side-pumping schemes, transverse mode competition, and stimulated thermal Rayleigh scattering into consideration has been built, which can model the static and dynamic mode evolution in high-power DSCCP fiber amplifiers. The mode evolution behavior has been investigated with variation of the fiber amplifier parameters, such as the pump power distribution, the length of the DSCCP fiber, the averaged coupling coefficient, the number of the pump cores and the arrangement of the pump cores. Interestingly, it revealed that static mode evolution induced by transverse mode competition is different from the dynamic evolution induced by stimulated thermal Rayleigh scattering. This shows that the high-order mode experiences a slightly higher gain in DSCCP fiber amplifiers, but the mode instability thresholds for DSCCP fiber amplifiers are higher than those for their end-coupled counterparts. By increasing the pump core number and reducing the averaged coupling coefficient, the mode instability threshold can be increased, which indicates that DSCCP fibers can provide additional mitigation strategies of dynamic mode instability.
Meiosis is a highly conserved process, and is responsible for the production of haploid gametes and generation of genetic diversity. We previously identified the transferrin receptor (TFRC) in the proteome profile of mice neonatal testes, indicating the involvement of the TFRC in meiosis. However, the exact molecular role of the TFRC in meiosis remains unclear. In this study, we aimed to determine the function of the TFRC in neonatal testicular development by TFRC knockdown using the testis culture platform. Our results showed high TFRC expression in 2-week testes, corresponding to the first meiotic division. Targeting TFRC using morpholino oligonucleotides resulted in clear spermatocyte apoptosis. In addition, we used the chromosomal spread technique to show that a deficiency of TFRC caused the accumulation of leptotene and zygotene spermatocytes, and a decrease of pachytene spermatocytes, indicating early meiotic arrest. Moreover, the chromosomes of TFRC-deficient pachytene spermatocytes displayed sustained γH2AX association, as well as SYCP1/SYCP3 dissociation beyond the sex body. Therefore, our results demonstrated that the TFRC is essential for the progression of spermatocyte meiosis, particularly for DNA double-stranded break repair and chromosomal synapsis.
As one of the major components of the Himalayan–Tibetan Orogeny, the Lhasa terrane plays a key role in understanding the origin and evolution of this giant orogenic belt and the opening and closure of the Tethys oceans. The eclogite-bearing Sumdo Complex in the central Lhasa terrane was recognized as the main suture of the Palaeo-Tethys Ocean between the north and south Lhasa sub-terranes. Despite the eclogite having been studied for a long time, no attempts have been applied to studying the country rocks, causing confusion in understanding the relationship between the eclogite and the adjacent schist. Petrological investigations and phase equilibrium calculations on the garnet-bearing mica schist of the Sumdo Complex have been performed to constrain its metamorphic evolution. The P–T conditions for three metamorphic stages are constrained as P1 (480–500°C, 2.6–2.7 GPa), P2 (580–600°C, 1.3–1.4 GPa) and R (530°C, 0.9 GPa), which represent the prograde, temperature peak and retrograde stages. Two possible P–T paths were constructed, which experienced isothermal decompression (PT1) or heating with a decompression process (PT2), corresponding to the growth and extinction of garnet porphyroblasts in the matrix. The LA-MC-ICP-MS U–Pb dating method yielded a metamorphic age of 229.7±3.5 Ma, which was interpreted as the age of amphibolite-facies metamorphism at c. 600°C, 1.2–1.4 GPa during the closure of the Palaeo-Tethys Ocean, resulting in the aggregation of the north and south Lhasa sub-terranes. The close relationship between the eclogite and garnet-bearing mica schist, and their similar P–T–t paths indicate an in situ tectonic evolution rather than tectonic juxtaposition during exhumation.
Alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) is known to be a natural antioxidant. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the cryoprotective effect of ALA on the motility of boar spermatozoa and its antioxidant effect on boar spermatozoa during freezing–thawing. Different concentrations (2.0, 4.0, 6.0, 8.0 or 10.0 mg/ml) of ALA were added to the extender used to freeze boar semen, and the effects on the quality and endogenous antioxidant enzyme activities of frozen–thawed spermatozoa were assessed. The results indicated that the addition of ALA to the extender resulted in a higher percentage of motile spermatozoa post-thaw (P < 0.05). The activities of superoxide dismutase, lactate dehydrogenase, glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase and catalase improved after adding ALA to the extender (P < 0.05). Artificial insemination results showed that pregnancy rate and litter size were significantly higher at 6.0 mg/ml in the ALA group than in the control group (P < 0.05). In conclusion, ALA conferred a cryoprotective capacity to the extender used for boar semen during the process of freezing–thawing, and the optimal concentration of ALA for the frozen extender was 6.0 mg/ml.
Morphogenesis and identification of embryonic differentiation in porcine embryos are crucial issues for developmental biology and laboratory animal science. The current paper presents a study on the asynchronous development of hatched porcine embryos from days 7 to 13 post-insemination. Examination of semi-thin sections of the hypoblast showed that it had characteristics similar to those of the mouse anterior visceral endoderm during embryonic disc formation. Also, a cavity appeared in the epiblast, which was similar to a mouse proamniotic cavity. With the gradual disappearance of Rauber's layer, the cavity opened and contacted the external environment directly, all of which formed the embryonic disc. To confirm the differentiation characteristics, we performed immunohistochemical analyses and showed that GATA6 was detected clearly in parietal endoderm cells during embryonic disc establishment. OCT4 was expressed in the inner cell mass (ICM) and trophoblast of hatched blastocysts and in the epiblast during formation of the embryonic disc. However, OCT4 showed comparatively decreased expression in the posterior embryonic disc, primitive streak and migrating cells. SOX2 was present in the ICM and epiblast. Therefore, both SOX2 and OCT4 can be used as markers of pluripotent cells in the porcine embryonic disc. At the start of gastrulation, staining revealed VIMENTIN in the posterior of the embryonic disc, primitive streak and in migrating cells that underlay the embryonic disc and was also expressed in epiblast cells located in the anterior primitive streak. Together with serial sections of embryos stained by whole mount immunohistochemistry, the mesoderm differentiation pattern was shown as an ingression movement that took place at the posterior of the embryonic disc and with bilateral migration along the embryonic disc borders.
We performed polarization sensitive VLBI observations of 6.7 GHz methanol masers toward high-mass young stellar objects with clear outflow seen from Spitzer IRAC images in the 4.5 μm band (i.e. EGOs, see Cyganowski et al. 2008) with the EVN to investigate the birthplace of the masers. By comparing direction of the major axis of methanol maser distributions with directions of higher resolution outflow and magnetic field vector, we suggest that the methanol masers toward source G28.83-0.25 may arise from surrounding disk.
The potential relationship between the establishment of Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) persistent infection and gene variation was identified by investigating the variation of VP1 and 3ABC genes from yellow cattle persistent infection isolates. Five yellow cattle were inoculated on their tongue with 1.0×104 ID50/ml of FMDV O/Akesu/58 strain. After displaying clinical or subclinical signs, they probably became asymptomatic carriers. Oesophageal–pharyngeal fluids were collected monthly from the carriers with a probang and inoculated into a baby hamster kidney cell line (BHK-21); 12 FMDV isolates were obtained. The VP1 and 3ABC genes of the 12 isolates were then amplified by reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Cloning and sequencing revealed that the homology of the VP1 nucleotide and amino-acid sequence of all the isolates was above 98%, with no base deletion or insertion. When compared with the O/Akesu/58 FMDV strain, the homology of the VP1 nucleotide sequence of the isolates was only 85%, and that of the deduced amino-acid sequence only 90%.There were several nucleotide mutations in the VP1 gene of the isolates, including 16 consistent nucleotide mutations, with only two of them leading to a change in amino acid (I56→T, A210→E). Moreover, it was found that four nucleotide points and three amino-acid points had transversions among all isolates. The 3ABC gene had only 13 nucleotide transversions and five amino-acid mutations. It was presumed that persistent FMDV infection might have little connection with variation in the VP1 and 3ABC genes, and was probably related to other structural protein gene and key factors.
MgxZn1−xO films were grown on quartz substrates at 773 K by using radio frequency magnetron sputtering with a mixture of argon and nitrogen as sputtering gases. The nitrogen concentration in the mixture is characterized by the nitrogen partial pressure ratio, which is determined by the ratio of nitrogen flow rate to the flow rates of nitrogen and argon. It was found that Mg concentration, structure, and band gap of the MgxZn1−xO film could be tuned by changing the nitrogen partial pressure ratio of the sputtering gases. The Mg concentration in the MgxZn1−xO film increases with increasing nitrogen partial pressure ratio. The MgxZn1−xO film consists of wurtzite phase at the ratios from 0% to 50%, mixture of wurtzite and cubic phases at the ratios between 50% and 83%, and cubic phase at 100%. The band gap of the MgxZn1−xO film with wurtzite and cubic structure increases as the ratio rises. The variation of the structure and band gap is attributed to change of the Mg concentration, which results from loss of the O and Zn atoms during growth process, the former is induced by reaction between N and O, and the latter by re-evaporation of Zn atoms due to high substrate temperature. The mechanism of the loss of the O and Zn atoms is discussed based on thermodynamics.
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