To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
The objective of this study was to investigate how different obesity measures link to circulating metabolites, and whether the connections are due to genetic or environmental factors. A cross-sectional analysis was performed on follow-up survey data at the Chinese National Twin Registry (CNTR), which was conducted in four areas of China (Shandong, Jiangsu, Zhejiang and Sichuan) in 2013. The survey collected detailed questionnaire information and conducted physical examinations, fasting blood sampling and untargeted metabolomic measurements among 439 adult twins. Linear regression models and bioinformatics analysis were used to examine the relation of obesity measures, including body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) with serum metabolite levels and related pathways. A co-twin control study was additionally conducted among 15 obesity-discordant monozygotic (MZ) pairs (intrapair BMI difference >3 kg/m2) to examine any differences in metabolites controlling for genetic factors. Eleven metabolites were associated with BMI, WC and WHR after controlling for genetic and shared environmental factors. Pathway analysis identified pathways such as phenylalanine metabolism, purine metabolism, valine, leucine and isoleucine biosynthesis that were associated with obesity. A wide range of unfavorable alterations in the serum metabolome was associated with obesity. Obesity-discordant twin analysis suggests that these associations are independent of genetic liability.
Barnyardgrass [Echinochloa crus-galli (L.) P. Beauv.] is a problematic weed in rice (Oryza sativa L.) fields. Overapplication of herbicides causes environmental pollution and the emergence of resistant weeds, and integrated weed management methods can reduce dependence on herbicides. The growth of E. crus-galli and rice seedlings was shown to be significantly inhibited by high concentrations of fulvic acid (FA, C14H12O8) under flooding conditions (HF, 0.80 g L−1) (P < 0.05). In contrast, seedling growth was promoted by the application of very low concentrations of FA (LF, 0.02 g L−1). The activities of glutathione S-transferase (GST) and antioxidant enzymes, including total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD), peroxidase (POD), and catalase (CAT), in E. crus-galli seedlings were enhanced by the LF treatment; while POD activity decreased and GST, T-SOD, and CAT activity was not significantly altered by the HF treatment. The metabolomic and transcriptomic analyses showed that FA regulated E. crus-galli seedling growth by affecting the synthesis of indole derivatives and flavonoid compounds. Compared with the blank control (CK, 0 g L−1), the levels of four indole derivatives were upregulated under the HF treatment, and the indole derivatives were slightly downregulated under the LF treatment. The flavonoids, including naringenin, naringenin chalcone, eriodictyol, kaempferol, and epigallocatechin, were downregulated under HF treatment, and the growth of E. crus-galli was reduced. In contrast, the metabolism and transcription of flavonoids were not significantly altered by the LF treatment. The addition of 0.80 g L−1 FA obviously inhibited the growth of newly sprouted E. crus-galli, whereas rice growth was significantly promoted 8 d after rice planting (P < 0.05). The application of FA, therefore, might be a potential integrated weed management method to control the damage caused by E. crus-galli in paddy fields.
Hypertension represents one of the most common pre-existing conditions and comorbidities in Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. To explore whether hypertension serves as a risk factor for disease severity, a multi-centre, retrospective study was conducted in COVID-19 patients. A total of 498 consecutively hospitalised patients with lab-confirmed COVID-19 in China were enrolled in this cohort. Using logistic regression, we assessed the association between hypertension and the likelihood of severe illness with adjustment for confounders. We observed that more than 16% of the enrolled patients exhibited pre-existing hypertension on admission. More severe COVID-19 cases occurred in individuals with hypertension than those without hypertension (21% vs. 10%, P = 0.007). Hypertension associated with the increased risk of severe illness, which was not modified by other demographic factors, such as age, sex, hospital geological location and blood pressure levels on admission. More attention and treatment should be offered to patients with underlying hypertension, who usually are older, have more comorbidities and more susceptible to cardiac complications.
Meiosis is a highly conserved process, and is responsible for the production of haploid gametes and generation of genetic diversity. We previously identified the transferrin receptor (TFRC) in the proteome profile of mice neonatal testes, indicating the involvement of the TFRC in meiosis. However, the exact molecular role of the TFRC in meiosis remains unclear. In this study, we aimed to determine the function of the TFRC in neonatal testicular development by TFRC knockdown using the testis culture platform. Our results showed high TFRC expression in 2-week testes, corresponding to the first meiotic division. Targeting TFRC using morpholino oligonucleotides resulted in clear spermatocyte apoptosis. In addition, we used the chromosomal spread technique to show that a deficiency of TFRC caused the accumulation of leptotene and zygotene spermatocytes, and a decrease of pachytene spermatocytes, indicating early meiotic arrest. Moreover, the chromosomes of TFRC-deficient pachytene spermatocytes displayed sustained γH2AX association, as well as SYCP1/SYCP3 dissociation beyond the sex body. Therefore, our results demonstrated that the TFRC is essential for the progression of spermatocyte meiosis, particularly for DNA double-stranded break repair and chromosomal synapsis.
To evaluate the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of severe acute respiratory coronavirus virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection among healthcare workers (HCWs) in Hubei Province, China.
Retrospective cohort study.
Hubei Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention.
The participants in this study are cases identified by epidemiological investigation in Hubei Province, as of February 27, 2020, and were followed until March 7, 2020. In total, 1,989 HCWs and 41,137 other occupational cases were included for analysis.
We used descriptive statistics to summarize patient characteristics.
Of 1,989 laboratory-confirmed HCWs, 297 (14.93%) had severe or critical cases, 73 (3.67%) had asymptomatic infections, and 18 died of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The case fatality rate was 0.9%. The proportion of severe or critical cases decreased from the beginning to the end of the outbreak (from 21.29% to 3.52%), and the proportion of asymptomatic cases increased from 0.0% to 47.18%. Nearly half of HCWs with confirmed COVID-19 reported no known contact with COVID-19 patients (969, 48.72%). Fever and cough were the most common symptoms at disease onset in both HCWs and other occupational cases; however, HCWs had higher rates of fatigue (30.90% vs 25.02%; P < .001) and myalgia (19.15% vs 13.43%; P < .001). Additionally, compared with other occupational groups, HCWs were associated with a lower risk of death after adjustment for potential confounders (odd ratio [OR], 0.50; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.30–0.79).
Compared with COVID-19 cases in other occupational groups, HCWs with COVID-19 have half the risk of death, although they have been shown to have higher rates of fatigue and myalgia.
As electrode materials, metal-organic frameworks always have low electrical conductivity and poor structural stability, which limits its applications in electrochemical fields. Here, Ni-BPDC/GO composites are synthesized using graphene oxide (GO) as a substrate and 4,4′-biphenyldicarboxylic acid (BPDC) as an organic ligand via a hydrothermal approach. The growth mechanism of the Ni-BPDC and Ni-BPDC/GO composites is proposed. In the composites, highly dispersed Ni-BPDC macro-nanostrips are supported on the GO surface in parallel. The presence of GO does not affect the growth and crystalline structure of Ni-BPDC. Compared with the Ni-BPDC, Ni-BPDC/GO composites exhibit higher specific capacitance, rate capability, and operating current density through lowering intrinsic resistance, charge-transfer resistance, and ion diffusion impedance. Moreover, the assembled Ni-BPDC/GO-3//reduced graphene oxide (rGO) asymmetric supercapacitor has large specific capacitance, good cycling stability, and high energy density (16.5 W h/kg at 250 W/kg). Hence, Ni-BPDC/GO composites are a potential electrode material for supercapacitors.
Findings for the roles of dairy products, Ca and vitamin D on ovarian cancer risk remain controversial. We aimed to assess these associations by using an updated meta-analysis. Five electronic databases (e.g. PubMed and Embase) were searched from inception to 24 December 2019. Pooled relative risks (RR) with 95 % CI were calculated. A total of twenty-nine case–control or cohort studies were included. For comparisons of the highest v. lowest intakes, higher whole milk intake was associated with increased ovarian cancer risk (RR 1·35; 95 % CI 1·15, 1·59), whereas decreased risks were observed for higher intakes of low-fat milk (RR 0·84; 95 % CI 0·73, 0·96), dietary Ca (RR 0·71; 95 % CI 0·60, 0·84) and dietary vitamin D (RR 0·80; 95 % CI 0·67, 0·95). Additionally, for every 100 g/d increment, increased ovarian cancer risks were found for total dairy products (RR 1·03; 95 % CI 1·01, 1·04) and for whole milk (RR 1·07; 95 % CI 1·03, 1·11); however, decreased risks were found for 100 g/d increased intakes of low-fat milk (RR 0·95; 95 % CI 0·91, 0·99), cheese (RR 0·87; 95 % CI 0·76, 0·98), dietary Ca (RR 0·96; 95 % CI 0·95, 0·98), total Ca (RR 0·98; 95 % CI 0·97, 0·99), dietary vitamin D (RR 0·92; 95 % CI 0·87, 0·97) and increased levels of circulating vitamin D (RR 0·84; 95 % CI 0·72, 0·97). These results show that whole milk intake might contribute to a higher ovarian cancer risk, whereas low-fat milk, dietary Ca and dietary vitamin D might reduce the risk.
To evaluate the effects of gestational weight gain (GWG) in the first trimester (GWG-F) and the rate of gestational weight gain in the second trimester (RGWG-S) on gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), exploring the optimal GWG ranges for the avoidance of GDM in Chinese women.
A population-based prospective study was conducted. Gestational weight was measured regularly in every antenatal visit and assessed by the Institute of Medicine (IOM) criteria (2009). GDM was assessed with the 75-g, 2-h oral glucose tolerance test at 24–28 weeks of gestation. Multivariable logistic regression was performed to assess the effects of GWG-F and RGWG-S on GDM, stratified by pre-pregnancy BMI. In each BMI category, the GWG values corresponding to the lowest prevalence of GDM were defined as the optimal GWG range.
Pregnant women (n 1910) in 2017.
After adjusting for confounders, GWG-F above IOM recommendations increased the risk of GDM (OR; 95 % CI) among underweight (2·500; 1·106, 5·655), normal-weight (1·396; 1·023, 1·906) and overweight/obese women (3·017; 1·118, 8·138) compared with women within IOM recommendations. No significant difference was observed between RGWG-S and GDM (P > 0·05) after adjusting for GWG-F based on the previous model. The optimal GWG-F ranges for the avoidance of GDM were 0·8–1·2, 0·8–1·2 and 0·35–0·70 kg for underweight, normal-weight and overweight/obese women, respectively.
Excessive GWG in the first trimester, rather than the second trimester, is associated with increased risk of GDM regardless of pre-pregnancy BMI. Obstetricians should provide more pre-emptive guidance in achieving adequate GWG-F.
Cesium lead iodide perovskite (CsPbI3) with excellent optical and electrical properties have attracted numerous academic attentions. Specifically, the black cubic phase CsPbI3 with a direct band gap of 1.74 eV has been most appropriate materials for various optoelectronic applications, especially for photovoltaic (PV), Light-Emitting Diodes (LED) and photodetector applications1. However, the preferred cubic phase of bulk CsPbI3 (α-CsPbI3) is usually only stable at high temperatures and it will undergo an immediate phase transformation to orthorhombic phase (δ-CsPbI3) after fabrication at room temperature. In this work, we have discovered a convenient CVD method to investigate the growth behavior of the cubic α-CsPbI3 film on the porous alumina substrate. The lead iodide and cesium iodide were used as the precursors for the deposition of CsPbI3. The porous alumina with high surface area and large pore volume was used as growth substrate. It was shown that the porous alumina promoted the growth of CsPbI3 film by absorbing the precursor and increasing the nucleation density. The prepared CsPbI3 film emitted strong and stable red light under ultraviolet light excitation at room temperature and ambient atmosphere. The lead iodide was absorbed on the surface of the porous alumina firstly then reacted with cesiumiodide to form the CsPbI3. The successful preparation of the CsPbI3 by the direct CVD method paves the way for its large scale growth and application in optoelectronic devices.
A stable reference gene is a key prerequisite for accurate assessment of gene expression. At present, the real-time reverse transcriptase quantitative polymerase chain reaction has been widely used in the analysis of gene expression in a variety of organisms. Neoseiulus barkeri Hughes (Acari: Phytoseiidae) is a major predator of mites on many important economically crops. Until now, however, there are no reports evaluating the stability of reference genes in this species. In view of this, we used GeNorm, NormFinder, BestKeeper, and RefFinder software tools to evaluate the expression stability of 11 candidate reference genes in developmental stages and under various abiotic stresses. According to our results, β-ACT and Hsp40 were the top two stable reference genes in developmental stages. The Hsp60 and Hsp90 were the most stable reference genes in various acaricides stress. For alterations in temperature, Hsp40 and α-TUB were the most suitable reference genes. About UV stress, EF1α and α-TUB were the best choice, and for the different prey stress, β-ACT and α-TUB were best suited. In normal conditions, the β-ACT and α-TUB were the two of the highest stable reference genes to respond to all kinds of stresses. The current study provided a valuable foundation for the further analysis of gene expression in N. barkeri.
Over the recent years, potential associations between Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) infection and cancer risk have attracted a lot of attention. Nevertheless, the association between T. gondii infection and oral cancer remains relatively unexplored. We performed a case–control study of 861 oral cancer patients and 861 control subjects from eastern China with the aim to detect antibodies to T. gondii by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in these patients. The results showed that oral cancer patients (21.72%, 187/861) had a significantly higher seroprevalence than control subjects (8.25%, 71/861) (P < 0.001). Among them, 144 (16.72%) oral cancer patients and 71 (8.25%) control subjects were positive for IgG antibodies to T. gondii, while 54 (6.27%) oral cancer patients and 9 (1.05%) controls were positive for IgM antibodies to T. gondii. In addition, multiple logistic analysis showed that T. gondii infection in oral cancer patients was associated with blood transfusion history, keeping cats at home, and oyster consumption. To our knowledge, this is the first study that provided a serological evidence of an association between T. gondii infection and oral cancer patients. However, further studies are necessary to elucidate the role of T. gondii in oral cancer patients.
Vetulicolians are a group of exclusively Cambrian animals characterized by an anterior section with lateral pouches and a posterior section that appears segmented. The precise phylogenetic affinity of vetulicolians is debated because there is a lack of consensus regarding the interpretation of their anatomical features. Their disparate morphology might even cause one to question whether this is a monophyletic taxon. In total, there are 15 species grouped into three families included in vetulicolians. Here we focus on new specimens of Yuyuanozoon magnificissimi Chen, Feng, and Zhu in Chen et al., 2003, a species that was first described from only a single specimen from the Chengjiang Biota (Cambrian Series 2, Stage 3, Eoredlichia-Wutingaspis trilobite Biozone), Yunnan Province, China. The species is notable in being exceptionally large (up to 20 cm long). Morphological observations on the new specimens clarify the nature of the wide circular opening at the presumed anterior end of the animal and the cowl-shaped lateral openings within this anterior section. Taphonomic observations identify wrinkles in the anterior section and twists in the posterior segmented section. In particular, the shape of the anterior opening of Yuyuanozoon magnificissimi suggests significant differences from other vetulicolians. Taxonomic reappraisal of Y. magnificissimi indicates that it belongs within the family Didazoonidae, as that is presently defined.
As one of the major components of the Himalayan–Tibetan Orogeny, the Lhasa terrane plays a key role in understanding the origin and evolution of this giant orogenic belt and the opening and closure of the Tethys oceans. The eclogite-bearing Sumdo Complex in the central Lhasa terrane was recognized as the main suture of the Palaeo-Tethys Ocean between the north and south Lhasa sub-terranes. Despite the eclogite having been studied for a long time, no attempts have been applied to studying the country rocks, causing confusion in understanding the relationship between the eclogite and the adjacent schist. Petrological investigations and phase equilibrium calculations on the garnet-bearing mica schist of the Sumdo Complex have been performed to constrain its metamorphic evolution. The P–T conditions for three metamorphic stages are constrained as P1 (480–500°C, 2.6–2.7 GPa), P2 (580–600°C, 1.3–1.4 GPa) and R (530°C, 0.9 GPa), which represent the prograde, temperature peak and retrograde stages. Two possible P–T paths were constructed, which experienced isothermal decompression (PT1) or heating with a decompression process (PT2), corresponding to the growth and extinction of garnet porphyroblasts in the matrix. The LA-MC-ICP-MS U–Pb dating method yielded a metamorphic age of 229.7±3.5 Ma, which was interpreted as the age of amphibolite-facies metamorphism at c. 600°C, 1.2–1.4 GPa during the closure of the Palaeo-Tethys Ocean, resulting in the aggregation of the north and south Lhasa sub-terranes. The close relationship between the eclogite and garnet-bearing mica schist, and their similar P–T–t paths indicate an in situ tectonic evolution rather than tectonic juxtaposition during exhumation.
The prevalence of overweight and obesity is growing rapidly in many countries. Socioeconomic inequalities might be important for this increase. The aim of this study was to determine associations of body mass index (BMI), overweight and obesity with educational level and marital status in Chinese twins. Participants were adult twins recruited through the Chinese National Twin Registry (CNTR), aged 18 to 79 years, and the sample comprised 10,448 same-sex twin pairs. Current height, weight, educational attainment, and marital status were self-reported. Regression analyses and structural equation models were conducted to evaluate BMI, overweight, and obesity associated with educational level and marital status in both sexes. At an individual level, both educational level and marital status were associated with higher BMI and higher risk of being overweight and obesity in men, while in women the effects of educational level on BMI were in the opposite direction. In within-Monozygotic (MZ) twin-pair analyses, the effects of educational level on BMI disappeared in females. Bivariate structural equation models showed that genetic factors and shared environmental confounded the relationship between education and BMI in females, whereas marital status was associated with BMI on account of significant positive unique environmental correlation apart in both sexes. The present data suggested that marital status and BMI were associated, independent of familiar factors, for both sexes of this study population, while common genetic and shared environmental factors contributed to education-associated disparities in BMI in females.
Neoseiulus barkeri (HUGHES) is the natural enemy of spider mites, whiteflies and thrips. Screening for chemically-resistant predatory mites is a practical way to balance the contradiction between the pesticide using and biological control. In this study, the number of eggs laid by fenpropathrin-susceptible and resistant strains of N. barkeri was compared. Additionally, we cloned three N. barkeri vitellogenin (Vg) genes and used quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction to quantify Vg expression in susceptible and resistant strains. The total number of eggs significantly increased in the fenpropathrin-resistant strain. The full-length cDNA cloning of three N. barkeri Vg genes (NbVg1, NbVg2 and NbVg3) revealed that the open reading frames of NbVg1, NbVg2 and NbVg3 were 5571, 5532 and 4728 bp, encoding 1856, 1843 and 1575 amino acids, respectively. The three N. barkeri Vg possessed the Vitellogenin-N domain (or lipoprotein N-terminal domain (LPD_N)), von Willebrand factor type D domain (VWD) and the domain with unknown function 1943 (DUF1943). The NbVg1 and NbVg2 expression levels were significantly higher in the resistant strain than in the susceptible strain, while the NbVg3 expression level was lower in the resistant strain. Thus, we speculate that the increased number of eggs laid by the fenpropathrin-resistant strain of N. barkeri may be a consequence of changes in Vg gene expression.
The role of the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii in the pathogenesis of liver disease has recently gained much interest. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and risk factors associated with T. gondii infection in patients with liver disease from three cities in Shandong and Henan provinces, China. A case–control study was conducted from December 2014 to November 2015 and included 1142 patients with liver disease and 1142 healthy controls. Serum samples were collected from all individuals and were examined with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the presence of anti-T. gondii IgG and IgM antibodies. Information on the demographics, clinical, and lifestyle characteristics of the participants was collected from the medical records and by the use of a questionnaire. The prevalence of anti-T. gondii IgG was 19·7% in patients with liver disease compared with 12·17% in the controls. Only 13 patients had anti-T. gondii IgM antibodies compared with 12 control individuals (1·14% vs. 1·05%, respectively). The highest seroprevalence was detected in patients with liver cancer (22·13%), followed by hepatitis patients (20·86%), liver cirrhosis patients (20·42%), and steatosis patients (20%). Multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that consumption of raw meat (odds ratio (OR) = 1·32; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1·01–1·71; P = 0·03) and source of drinking water from wells (OR = 1·56; 95% CI 1·08–2·27; P = 0·01) were independent risk factors for T. gondii infection in liver disease patients. These findings indicate that T. gondii infection is more likely to be present in patients with liver disease. Therefore, efforts should be directed toward health education of populations at high risk of T. gondii infection and measures should be taken to protect vulnerable patients with liver disease.
Obesity is associated with blood pressure (BP), but the associations between different obesity indicators and BP have not reached agreement. Besides, both obesity and BP are influenced by genetic and environmental factors. Whether they share the same genetic or environmental etiology has not been fully understood. We therefore analyzed the relationship between different obesity indicators and BP components as well as the genetic and environmental contributions to these relationships in a Chinese adult twin sample. Twins aged 18–79 years (n = 941) were included in this study. Body mass index (BMI) was used as the index of general obesity, whereas waist circumference (WC), waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) were used as the indicators of central obesity. BP components included systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP). Linear regression models and bivariate structural equation models were used to examine the relation of various obesity indicators with BP components, and genetic or environmental influences on these associations, respectively. A strong association of BP components with BMI—and a somewhat weaker association with WC, WHtR, and WHR—was found in both sexes, independent of familial factors. Of these phenotypic correlations between obesity indicators and BP components, 60–76% were attributed to genetic factors, whereas 24–40% were attributed to unique environmental factors. General obesity was most strongly associated with high BP in Chinese adult twins. There were common genetic backgrounds for obesity and BP, and unique environmental factors also played a role.
Supercapacitor has received intense interest due to its high-charge/discharge rate and high-power density. C/Fe2O3 layer with different C/Fe ratios were synthesized by a solution-based approach for supercapacitor application. The influence of synthesis conditions on their electrochemical performances was investigated. Cobalt was added into C/Fe2O3 and significant improved its performance. The optimal C/Fe2O3 sample gives a high specific capacitance of 85.3 F/g and the addition of Co3O4 further increase the capacitance of obtained C/Fe2O3/Co3O4 to 144.4 F/g at 5 A/g. This work demonstrates an efficient supercapacitor application of low-cost metal oxides and facile solution-based synthesis approach.