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The first demonstration of laser action in ruby was made in 1960 by T. H. Maiman of Hughes Research Laboratories, USA. Many laboratories worldwide began the search for lasers using different materials, operating at different wavelengths. In the UK, academia, industry and the central laboratories took up the challenge from the earliest days to develop these systems for a broad range of applications. This historical review looks at the contribution the UK has made to the advancement of the technology, the development of systems and components and their exploitation over the last 60 years.
Online learning has become an increasingly expected and popular component for education of the modern-day adult learner, including the medical provider. In light of the recent coronavirus pandemic, there has never been more urgency to establish opportunities for supplemental online learning. Heart University aims to be “the go-to online resource” for e-learning in CHD and paediatric-acquired heart disease. It is a carefully curated open access library of paedagogical material for all providers of care to children and adults with CHD or children with acquired heart disease, whether a trainee or a practising provider. In this manuscript, we review the aims, development, current offerings and standing, and future goals of Heart University.
In view of the challenge posed by climate change and the need to reduce dependence on fossil fuels, The Royal Society of Edinburgh Inquiry (2011) examined the barriers making it difficult for Scotland to change to a low-carbon society. The single most important finding is that, whilst widely desired, change is held back by the lack of coherence and integration of policy at different levels of governance. There is activity at the level of the EU, UK Government, Scottish Government, local authorities, local communities, households and civil society, but there is often a disconnection between policies at different levels. This impedes progress and also leads to mistrust among the general public. This paper brings together the background to ten primary recommendations featured in the Inquiry addressing the principal barriers. Above all, it is important to integrate the activities within city regions and to exploit opportunities in local communities. Reflecting on the Inquiry findings, we stress the economic, social and environmental opportunities to be gained from a low-carbon society and outline the step changes that need to take place within governance, city regions and local authorities and civil society.
This work was focused on studies of the metal hydride materials having a potential in building hydrogen storage systems with high gravimetric and volumetric efficiencies of H storage and formed / decomposed with high rates of hydrogen exchange. In situ diffraction studies of the metal-hydrogen systems were explored as a valuable tool in probing both the mechanism of the phase-structural transformations and their kinetics. Two complementary techniques, namely Neutron Powder Diffraction (NPD) and Synchrotron X-ray diffraction (SR XRD) were utilised. High pressure in situ NPD studies were performed at D2 pressures reaching 1000 bar at the D1B diffractometer accommodated at Institute Laue Langevin, Grenoble. The data of the time resolved in situ SR XRD were collected at the Swiss Norwegian Beam Lines, ESRF, Grenoble in the pressure range up to 50 bar H2 at temperatures 20-400°C.
The systems studied by NPD at high pressures included deuterated Al-modified Laves-type C15 ZrFe2-xAlx intermetallics with x = 0.02; 0.04 and 0.20 and the CeNi5-D2 system. D content, hysteresis of H uptake and release, unit cell expansion and stability of the hydrides systematically change with Al content.
Deuteration exhibited a very fast kinetics; it resulted in increase of the unit cells volumes reaching 23.5 % for ZrFe1.98Al0.02D2.9(1) and associated with exclusive occupancy of the Zr2(Fe,Al)2 tetrahedra.
For CeNi5 deuteration yielded a hexahydride CeNi5D6.2 (20°C, 776 bar D2) and was accompanied by a nearly isotropic volume expansion reaching 30.1% (∆a/a=10.0%; ∆c/c=7.5%). Deuterium atoms fill three different interstitial sites including Ce2Ni2, Ce2Ni3 and Ni4. Significant hysteresis was observed on the first absorption-desorption cycle. This hysteresis decreased on the absorption-desorption cycling.
A different approach to the development of H storage systems is based on the hydrides of light elements, first of all the Mg-based ones. These systems were studied by SR XRD. Reactive ball milling in hydrogen (HRBM) allowed synthesis of the nanostructured Mg-based hydrides.
The experimental parameters (PH2, T, energy of milling, ball / sample ratio and balls size), significantly influence rate of hydrogenation. The studies confirmed (a) a completeness of hydrogenation of Mg into MgH2; (b) indicated a partial transformation of the originally formed -MgH2 into a metastable -MgH2 (a ratio / was 3/1); (c) yielded the crystallite size for the main hydrogenation product, -MgH2, as close to 10 nm. Influence of the additives to Mg on the structure and hydrogen absorption/desorption properties and cycle behaviour of the composites was established and will be discussed in the paper.
Megalithic art has often been treated as a unitary phenomenon, related to the spread of farming across Western Europe. This approach does not do justice to the very different ways in which tomb decoration was employed by particular communities. This article focuses on the megalithic art of Orkney, much of it recorded for the first time during a recent field survey. This is normally interpreted as a local variant of the style of ‘art’ found in Neolithic Ireland, but on close examination it has much stronger links with the abstract motifs found in local settlements. Whereas the megalithic art of Ireland may have celebrated the passage of the dead to another world, in Orkney it was used to emphasize their continued involvement in the affairs of the living.
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