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The first demonstration of laser action in ruby was made in 1960 by T. H. Maiman of Hughes Research Laboratories, USA. Many laboratories worldwide began the search for lasers using different materials, operating at different wavelengths. In the UK, academia, industry and the central laboratories took up the challenge from the earliest days to develop these systems for a broad range of applications. This historical review looks at the contribution the UK has made to the advancement of the technology, the development of systems and components and their exploitation over the last 60 years.
Property rights are the rules governing ownership in society. This Element offers an analytical framework to understand the origins and consequences of property rights. It conceptualizes of the political economy of property rights as a concern with the follow questions: What explains the origins of economic and legal property rights? What are the consequences of different property rights institutions for wealth creation, conservation, and political order? Why do property institutions change? Why do legal reforms relating to property rights such as land redistribution and legal titling improve livelihoods in some contexts but not others? In analyzing property rights, the authors emphasize the complementarity of insights from a diversity of disciplinary perspectives, including Austrian economics, public choice, and institutional economics, including the Bloomington School of institutional analysis and political economy.
The Canadian Stroke Best Practice Recommendations suggests that patients suspected of transient ischemic attack (TIA)/minor stroke receive urgent brain imaging, preferably computed tomography angiography (CTA). Yet, high requisition rates for non-cerebrovascular patients overburden limited radiological resources, putting patients at risk. We hypothesize that our clinical decision support tool (CDST) developed for risk stratification of TIA in the emergency department (ED), and which incorporates Canadian guidelines, could improve CTA utilization.
Retrospective study design with clinical information gathered from ED patient referrals to an outpatient TIA unit in Victoria, BC, from 2015-2016. Actual CTA orders by ED and TIA unit staff were compared to hypothetical CTA ordering if our CDST had been used in the ED upon patient arrival.
For 1,679 referrals, clinicians ordered 954 CTAs. Our CDST would have ordered a total of 977 CTAs for these patients. Overall, this would have increased the number of imaged-TIA patients by 89 (10.1%) while imaging 98 (16.1%) fewer non-cerebrovascular patients over the 2-year period. Our CDST would have ordered CTA for 18 (78.3%) of the recurrent stroke patients in the sample.
Our CDST could enhance CTA utilization in the ED for suspected TIA patients, and facilitate guideline-based stroke care. Use of our CDST would increase the number of TIA patients receiving CTA before ED discharge (rather than later at TIA units) and reduce the burden of imaging stroke mimics in radiological departments.
This paper provides a case study of online pirate communities who use peer-to-peer networks to share copyrighted material illegally. Early scholars of peer-to-peer networks posited the possibility of a total network collapse due to issues of free-riding. When these networks are used to distribute copyrighted material illegally, the increased risk of legal punishment adds a further disincentive to contribute. This paper uses Ostrom's (2005) framework to categorize the rules used in pirate communities to solve collective action problems, evidencing the applicability and robustness of Ostrom's framework for self-governance under less favorable conditions. Through the use of boundary, position, information, and payoff rules, pirate communities are able to mitigate free-riding in the network.
There is limited data on the recovery of factors associated with decisional capacity in patients with psychosis.
To study the relationship between changes in mental capacity, symptoms and global functioning using structured measures during treatment for psychosis.
Fifty-six patients with psychosis were assessed for capacity to consent to treatment on admission and at 6 and 12 weeks following treatment. The MacArthur Competence Assessment Tool – Treatment, the Positive and Negative Symptom Scale and the Global Assessment of Functioning Scale were used to measure mental capacities, symptom severity and global functioning respectively. Treating consultants rated capacity to consent, masked to these measures.
Greater impairments on all measures were found in patients assessed as lacking capacity. These improved with treatment over 12 weeks with significant effect sizes (0.5 to 0.6). Stronger correlations between mental capacities, positive symptoms (-0.47) and global functioning (0.56) were noted in the first 6 weeks.
Impairments in capacity in acute stages of psychosis are related to symptom severity and functional impairment. They improve during treatment, particularly in the first 6 weeks.
The montane inselbergs of northern Mozambique have been comparatively little-studied, yet recent surveys have shown they have a rich biodiversity with numerous endemic species. Here we present the main findings from a series of scientific expeditions to one of these inselbergs, Mt Mabu, and discuss the conservation implications. Comprehensive species lists of plants, birds, mammals and butterflies are presented. The most significant result was the discovery of a c. 7,880 ha block of undisturbed rainforest, most of it at medium altitude (900–1,400 m), a forest type that is not well represented elsewhere. It is possibly the largest continuous block of this forest type in southern Africa. To date, 10 new species (plants, mammals, reptiles and butterflies) have been confirmed from Mt Mabu, even though sampling effort for most taxonomic groups has been low. The species assemblages indicate a relatively long period of isolation and many species found are at the southern limit of their range. Conservationists are now faced with the challenge of how best to protect Mt Mabu and similar mountains in northern Mozambique, and various ways that this could be done are discussed.
The study aims to provide the first detailed account of the diversity and composition of the community associated with biogenic reefs formed by serpulid worms. Ten reefs (aggregations of calcareous Serpula vermicularis tubes), spanning a broad size-range, were collected from Loch Creran, Scotland, a Special Area of Conservation designated principally for the protection of its biogenic reefs. Total faunal abundance was strongly linearly related to reef weight, whilst taxon richness exhibited a hyperbolic relationship with reef size. 278 taxa were recorded from the ten reefs, with a reef of 0.1 m2 area supporting 163 taxa and 12756 individuals, which appears to represent considerable augmentation of diversity and abundance for sedimentary areas of the loch where the reefs occur. The reef assemblage was dominated by polychaetes (94 taxa), molluscs (70 taxa) and crustaceans (45 taxa). Species composition varied with reef size, although reefs greater than 25 cm width exhibited relatively little variation. In comparison with other biogenic polychaete habitats, S. vermicularis reefs appear to support a highly diverse community, which exhibits a high degree of similarity with that found in association with aggregations of the horse mussel, Modiolus modiolus. The presence of the Connemara clingfish, Lepadogaster candollei, rarely recorded at such a northerly latitude, on several reefs, indicates that the reef habitat may provide a stronghold for this species at the edge of its biogeographical range.
In 1967, all London medical schools were separate institutions based on their teaching hospitals, many of which had moved from their original central sites. Successive attempts at merger met resistance, but by 2000 there were just five undergraduate schools, all incorporated in large multi-faculty colleges with the exception of St George's.
IMPERIAL COLLEGE LONDON
In the north-west, Imperial College absorbed St Mary's Hospital in 1989 and in 1997 also took in Charing Cross and Westminster Hospitals (already merged in 1983).
Charing Cross Hospital
Early development of general practice teaching
Charing Cross Hospital medical school started in the mid-nineteenth century at the hospital building near The Strand, London. It was small, taking twenty to thirty new students annually. General practice teaching started in the 1950s when students were invited to stay with a general practitioner (usually an alumnus) for three weeks in their final year. Most practices were outside London (often rural), enabling students to experience the daily life of a general practitioner, including out of hours work and living with his family.
Charing Cross Hospital moved to Fulham in 1974, and the annual school intake increased to 120. The final-year general practice attachment expanded accordingly and the Dean, Professor Glenister, initiated plans for an undergraduate general practice teaching unit. The education committee of the north and west London faculty of the RCGP took great interest in the developments, especially as the GMC was threatening to remove accreditation from schools that did not have departments of general practice.
Limaria hians functions as a keystone species in construction of a highly diverse biogenic habitat. An investigation to quantify the biodiversity of two L. hians beds was carried out during the winter and summer seasons at two sites on the west coast of Scotland. Cores were taken semi-randomly through 100% L. hians nest material, organisms removed, identified and enumerated. Univariate and multivariate analyses of the data were used to establish temporal and locational differences. A total of 7275 individuals were found representing 282 species from 16 phyla. Univariate analysis revealed significant differences between the species richness of the two populations, whilst multivariate analysis illustrated differences in the assemblage compositions between sites and times. This study showed that in terms of richness and diversity these beds are among the most important biogenic habitats in the UK.
This paper proposes management responses to problems perceived in an earlier paper on King George Island (Polar Record 27(162): 193–204, 1991). Available management instruments and barriers to solutions are reviewed, and new management approaches and tools postulated. The category of Antarctic Protected Area (APA) is proposed for areas needing special protection, with sub-designations of Natural, Scientific and Historic Reserves. Multiple-use Planning Areas (MPAs) are endorsed for areas of high use needing local and regional planning, including station environs, but with sub-designations Environmentally Sensitive Areas, Scientific Research Sites and Facilities Areas. Both APAs and MPAs will require management plans: APAs will be accessible only by entry permit. Also recommended are a scientific and logistic register, scheduled meetings among station commanders, development of an internationally coordinated regional scientific strategy, and an environmental information system. To manage tourism a commercial tourism licence system and tourist levy are recommended, with the industry controlled under management plans developed for APAs and MPAs, plus general Treaty provisions. Workload arising from these revisions would necessitate the Committee on Environmental Protection in the forthcoming Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty, with a permanent Treaty secretariat. This framework, requiring a multinational approach to management more sophisticated than has so far been achieved under the Antarctic Treaty, would improve and coordinate management throughout Antarctica.
A number of countries are revising management plans for protected areas in Antarctica so that they comply with Annex V to the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty. Annex V allows for ‘identification of zones…in which activities are to be prohibited, restricted or managed.’ A wide range of terms are, and could be, used to meet site-specific zoning needs. If allowed to develop in an ad hoc way, a confusing and inconsistent set of zones would be likely to evolve. This could be avoided by a coordinated and pro-active approach to identifying the zones needed. Based on field observations and examination of current and proposed management plans, a simple, standardised model of five types of zone is proposed: Restricted, Scientific, Tourist, Facilities, and Historic. Their application, where needed, would meet the full range of management needs within specially protected and managed areas in Antarctica.
King George Island, largest of the South Shetland Islands, is the site of nine scientific stations of different nationalities operating within the Antarctic Treaty System. Following a recent visit by the author to assess environmental and management issues, this article (the first of two) updates the status of developments on the island and outlines problems, real and potential.which have arisen from scientific activities, tourism, vehicles, use of fuels and waste disposal. It is concluded that existing management practices have not been adequate to deal with these problems and new approaches are required.