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We present the data and initial results from the first pilot survey of the Evolutionary Map of the Universe (EMU), observed at 944 MHz with the Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder (ASKAP) telescope. The survey covers
of an area covered by the Dark Energy Survey, reaching a depth of 25–30
rms at a spatial resolution of
11–18 arcsec, resulting in a catalogue of
220 000 sources, of which
180 000 are single-component sources. Here we present the catalogue of single-component sources, together with (where available) optical and infrared cross-identifications, classifications, and redshifts. This survey explores a new region of parameter space compared to previous surveys. Specifically, the EMU Pilot Survey has a high density of sources, and also a high sensitivity to low surface brightness emission. These properties result in the detection of types of sources that were rarely seen in or absent from previous surveys. We present some of these new results here.
The Critically Endangered Chapman's pygmy chameleon Rhampholeon chapmanorum is endemic to the low elevation rainforest of the Malawi Hills in southern Malawi. Much of this forest has been converted to agriculture and it was uncertain whether chameleon populations have persisted. We used current and historical satellite imagery to identify remaining forest patches and assess deforestation. We then surveyed forest patches for the presence of this chameleon, and assessed its genetic diversity and structure. We estimated that 80% of the forest has been destroyed since 1984, although we found extant populations of the chameleon in each of the patches surveyed. Differentiation of genetic structure was strong between populations, suggesting that gene flow has been impaired. Genetic diversity was not low, but this could be the result of a temporal lag as well as lack of sensitivity in the mitochondrial marker used. Overall, the impact of forest loss is assumed to have led to a large demographic decline, with forest fragmentation preventing gene flow.
We identified quality indicators (QIs) for care during transitions of older persons (≥ 65 years of age). Through systematic literature review, we catalogued QIs related to older persons’ transitions in care among continuing care settings and between continuing care and acute care settings and back. Through two Delphi survey rounds, experts ranked relevance, feasibility, and scientific soundness of QIs. A steering committee reviewed QIs for their feasible capture in Canadian administrative databases. Our search yielded 326 QIs from 53 sources. A final set of 38 feasible indicators to measure in current practice was included. The highest proportions of indicators were for the emergency department (47%) and the Institute of Medicine (IOM) quality domain of effectiveness (39.5%). Most feasible indicators were outcome indicators. Our work highlights a lack of standardized transition QI development in practice, and the limitations of current free-text documentation systems in capturing relevant and consistent data.
Chapter 8 focuses on rotor blade technology, covering design, materials, manufacture, and testing. The role of fibre-reinforced composites is discussed, examining their superior mechanical and manufacturing properties. Their property of anisotropy enables composites to be tailored to match the direction of principal stresses in the most material-efficient way. Blade structural design is illustrated using bending theory for a cantilever beam, with stress and strain equations developed for a composite structure. The importance of section thickness and cross-sectional geometry is illustrated using the SERI/NREL blade profiles. An overview of blade attachment methods considers adhesive bonded root studs, T-bolts, and fibre-embedded studs that are integrated during the blade-moulding process. Most large blades are nowadays manufactured by vacuum resin infusion moulding (VRIM), and the chapter includes a description of this technique. There is a section on wood-laminate blades, which are still used in some applications, and comments on blade balancing and testing. The chapter concludes with a review of blade weight and technology trends based on some historic commmercial blade designs.
This chapter summarises the key aerodynamic theory of horizontal-axis wind turbine rotors. The actuator disc concept leads to the relationships between induced velocity, axial thrust, and power extraction. The theory is extended to multiple streamtubes, which, combined with 2D wing theory, establish the basis of blade-element momentum (BEM) theory. A straightforward mathematical treatment of BEM theory is included, with an iterative procedure suitable for coding. Measurements from a full-scale rotor illustrate the applicability of BEM theory but also its fundamental limitations: the latter are described, and measures are outlined to compensate for them in practical BEM codes. Simple relationships are given for the axial and tangential load distributions on an optimal HAWT blade. The structure of the rotor wake is described, leading into a description of vortex-wake theory, which provides a more physically realistic description of the airflow. Vortex wake codes are described in non-mathematical terms. The chapter includes wake measurements from full-scale wind turbines and small models. Vorticity maps from the latter verify the underlying mathematical model of a helical vortex wake.
The final chapter is a largely non-technical overview of economic and political aspects of wind energy policy. The cost of wind energy is assessed in terms of Levelised Cost of Energy (LCoE), with equations given in full and simplified forms. Using a large database, historic installed costs for UK wind both onshore and offshore are given, from the earliest projects to the present day. The observed trends are discussed. Operational and balancing costs are outlined, the latter reflecting the intermittency of wind power. LCoE estimates are made for a range of installed costs and output capacity factors at typical discount rates and compared with current generation prices. The chapter considers the economics of onsite generation with the example of a private business using wind energy to offset demand; the energy displacement and export statistics are extrapolated to compare with a national scenario for 100% renewable electricity generation. The topic of ownership is introduced and examined in the context of the UK’s first community-owned windfarm. The chapter concludes with a brief review of UK renewable energy policy, which originated with legislation to protect the nuclear power industry.
Chapter 7 considers structural loading and response of horizontal-axis machines, with some theoretical background and illustrative measurements from different wind turbine types. The chapter begins with a recap of the dynamics of a single degree of freedom system, leading into a discussion of multi-DOF systems and modal analysis. The cyclic loads affecting a wind turbine structure are described, including wind shear, tower shadow, and rotationally sampled turbulence. The concepts of stochastic and deterministic loading are explained and the principle of aerodynamic damping illustrated. Qualitative descriptions are given of gyroscopic, centrifugal, and electromechanical loading. The phenomenon of blade edgewise stall vibration is explained, with discussion of mechanical damper solutions. The last part of the chapter draws on an early experimental campaign in which the dynamic loading on a full-scale wind turbine was measured and compared with the results of software simulation. Results from the same trials also demonstrate the difference in rotor thrust loading arising from positive and negative pitch control. The chapter concludes with a brief summary of fatigue prediction methods.
Chapter 6 considers wind turbine control, including supervisory control, power limiting, starting and stopping, electrical power quality, and sector management. The importance of accurate yaw control is discussed in terms of energy capture and cyclic loading, and an active yaw system is illustrated. The main focus of the chapter is real-time power control, and the chapter builds on the aerodynamic and electrical concepts covered previously in Chapters 3–5. The differences between stall and pitch regulation are explained, in the latter case in the context of both constant and variable-speed operation. Power measurements from constant-speed and variable-speed pitch controlled machines illustrate the superior accuracy of the latter. Control block diagrams are given for both methods, with qualitative explanation of the principles. The procedure for starting and stopping different wind turbine types is explained, and the advantages of pitch control in this context are illustrated. The chapter includes a short description of sector management, a control strategy based on external factors such as wind speed and direction, and used for noise reduction, shadow flicker prevention, or fatigue mitigation.
Chapter 5 deals with electrical issues and is broadly divided in two. The first half explains the operating principles of the several different types of generator found on wind turbines and their influence on dynamics and electrical power quality. Generator types are illustrated schematically and their characteristics explained using simple physical principles. Geared and gearless (direct drive) generators are discussed, and there is a brief historical review of generator developments. The second half of the chapter deals with electrical networks and further examines the issue of power quality. The importance of reactive power and how modern generators can manipulate it to aid voltage stability are explained; the role of external devices such as Statcoms, SVCs, and pre-insertion resistors is also discussed in this context. Measurements from a MW-scale wind turbine illustrate voltage control via reactive power management over a period of several days. The challenge of low grid strength is illustrated with a practical example of a small wind farm development on a rural network with low fault level. The chapter concludes with a brief discussion of wind turbine lightning protection.
This chapter contains a broad overview of the technical and environmental issues to be addressed in the construction of onshore wind energy projects. The former include ecological considerations, including birds and mammals; the requirements of typical pre-construction ornithological surveys are described with an example. Public safety and acceptance is discussed in the context of catastrophic damage to wind turbines, visual impact, shadow flicker, and noise nuisance. In the last case, equations and simple rules for noise assessment are given in the context of typical planning guidelines. Sound power levels for a range of commercial wind turbines are compared, and empirical relationships are given relating noise to rated output, rotor size, and tip speed. Risks to aviation are discussed, covering aircraft collision and interference to radar systems, including both primary and secondary surveillance radars. The concept of ‘stealthy’ wind turbine blades is discussed and described in outline. Other siting criteria include avoidance of RF and microwave communications beams and television interference. Rules are given to avoid interference, while minimising required separation distances.
Chapter 9, on siting and installation, considers some of the key steps leading to the successful installation of a wind energy project, whether a single machine or large array. A section on resource assessment considers site wind measurements, the IEC Wind Classification system, and the measure-correlate-predict (MCP) procedure for establishing long-term characteristics at a prospective site. Array interactions are described in terms of energy loss and increased turbulence: empirical models are given for predicting both effects, and wake influence is illustrated with field measurements from large and small arrays. The civil engineering aspects of project construction are examined, with description of different foundation types; simple rules are given for conventional gravity base design, with illustrations. The construction and environmental advantages of rock anchor foundations are described, and some examples are given. Transport, access, and crane operations are discussed. The use of winch erection is illustrated with the example of a 50kW machine. The chapter concludes with a short summary of the necessary electrical infrastructure between a wind turbine and the external grid network.
Chapter 4 extends the aerodynamic discussions of the preceding chapter to show how the rotor net loads (power, thrust, and torque) are developed. The dimensionless power coefficient (Cp) curve is introduced, and the relationship between rotor tip speed ratio and optimum solidity is explained. The variation of thrust loading with wind speed on an ideal pitch-controlled rotor is explained from simple theory and illustrated with measurements from a full-scale wind turbine. Equations governing the chord and twist distributions for an optimised blade are given and discussed in the context of some historic blade types, with illustrations. Rotor aerodynamic control is explained with reference to fixed-pitch stall regulation and variable blade pitch in both positive and negative senses. The influence of blade number is examined, with discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of one-, two-, and three-bladed wind turbines. The chapter concludes with a brief overview of alternative aerodynamic control devices, including tip vanes and ailerons, and the downwind rotor configuration (with examples).
This chapter is an overview of wind power meterorology at a relatively simple level without too much mathematical complexity. The origins of the wind are explained in the action of solar thermal radiation on the atmosphere, and the equation is given for the geostrophic wind at the top of the earth’s boundary layer. The role of the boundary layer in creating wind shear and turbulence near the earth’s surface is explained, and appropriate engineering equations are given to allow wind speed and turbulence to be estimated. Surface roughness and its relationship to turbulence and shear are explained. Experimental measurements are used to illustrate shear and turbulence for a range of different terrain types. The time and space dependency of wind speeds is also illustrated with site measurements, showing the long-term dependability of annual wind speeds, through the more variable monthly averages, to short-term turbulent variation. Gust factor is explained and illustrated as a function of turbulence intensity. The chapter includes high-resolution wind measurements taken during a storm in the Scottish Outer Hebrides, illustrating the extreme levels of turbulence arising in complex terrain.
The introductory chapter is a brief recap of the history and origins of wind power, from windmills in ancient times to today’s multi-megawatt turbines. Energy security has arguably been the historic driver for wind power, and it was a primary source of mechanical power until the advent of the Industrial Revolution, when it was superceded by coal and oil. The first electricity-generating wind turbines were built in the late nineteenth centry, and the technology was pursued most vigorously in Denmark, a country with limited energy reserves: the role of this country in creating the modern wind turbine is described. The worldwide energy crisis of the 1970s brought wind power into the frame internationally, and the pivotal role of legislation under President Carter in expanding the market for wind energy in the US and elsewhere is outlined. Since then, the rationale for wind power has expanded to include climate change, and the technology has grown exponentially in terms of global installation of wind power and the physical size of wind turbines. The chapter concludes by introducing some of the technological steps that have enabled this process, which are detailed in subsequent chapters.