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Horizontal and vertical distribution of cephalopod paralarvae (PL) from the Mesoamerican Barrier Reef System (MBRS) in the Western Caribbean was studied during two oceanographic cruises in 2006 and 2007. A total of 1034 PL belonging to 12 families, 22 genera, 24 species, 5 morphotypes and a species complex were identified. Abralia redfieldi, Onychoteuthis banksii and Ornithoteuthis antillarum were the most abundant taxa. The taxonomic identification from these three species was corroborated with DNA barcoding (99.8–100% of similarity). Paralarvae of Octopus insularis were reported for the first time in the wild. Most PL occupied the Caribbean Surface Water mass in the 0–25 m depth stratum. Largest paralarval abundances were related to local oceanographic features favouring retention such as the Honduras Gyre and Cozumel eddy. No day-night differences were found in PL abundance, although Abralia redfieldi showed evidence of diel vertical migration. Distribution of PL in epipelagic waters of the MBRS was probably related to ontogenetic migration, hydrographic features of meso and subscale, and to the circulation regimes dominated by the Yucatan Current. The MBRS represents an important dispersion area for PL, potentially connecting a species-rich Caribbean community with the Gulf of Mexico and Florida waters.
Scaffolds based on two different geometries were constructed by additive manufacturing: one based on a triply periodic minimal surface, the Schwarz D surface, and the other based on a rectangular geometry with orthogonal through-holes. For construction of the scaffolds, two different materials were used: polylactic acid (PLA) in filament form and alumina in printable paste form. The structure of the resulting scaffolds was characterized via X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy, and cell proliferation was assessed for each geometry and material, using fluorescence microscopy and DNA quantification via NanoDrop. Additive manufacturing allowed us to obtain scaffolds with the assessed materials while guaranteeing the interconnectivity of the pores in each one. The curved surfaces constructed with PLA were more favorable for cell attachment and proliferation of the CHO-K1 cell line.
There are very few studies investigating remediation of event-based prospective memory (EB-PM) impairments following traumatic brain injury (TBI). To address this, we used 2 levels of motivational enhancement (dollars vs. pennies) to improve EB-PM in children with moderate to severe TBI in the subacute recovery phase. Children with orthopedic injuries (OI; n = 61), moderate (n = 28), or severe (n = 30) TBI were compared. Significant effects included Group × Motivation Condition (F(2, 115) = 3.73, p < .03). The OI (p < .002) and moderate TBI (p < .03) groups performed significantly better under the high- versus low-incentive condition; however, the severe TBI group failed to demonstrate improvement (p = .38). EB-PM performance was better in adolescents compared to younger children (p < .02). These results suggest that EB-PM can be significantly improved in the subacute phase with this level of monetary incentives in children with moderate, but not severe, TBI. Other strategies to improve EB-PM in these children at a similar point in recovery remain to be identified and evaluated. (JINS, 2010, 16, 335–341.)
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