To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Multiple herbicide-resistant populations of horseweed [Conyza canadensis (L.) Cronquist] continue to spread rapidly throughout Ontario, notably in areas where no-till soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] is grown. The occurrence of multiple herbicide resistance within these populations suggests that the future role of herbicide tank mixtures as a means of control will be limited. An integrated weed management strategy utilizing complementary selection pressures is needed to reduce the selection intensity of relying solely on herbicides for control. Field studies were conducted in 2018 and 2019 to test the hypothesis: if fall-seeded cereal rye (Secale cereale L.) can reduce C. canadensis seedling density and suppress seedling growth, then the interaction(s) of complementary selection pressures of tillage, cereal rye, and herbicides would improve the level of C. canadensis control. Laboratory studies were conducted to determine whether the allelopathic compound 2-benzoxazolinone (BOA) affected the root development of C. canadensis seedlings. The interactions observed among multiple selection pressures of tillage, cereal rye, and herbicides were inconsistent between the 2 yr of study. A monoculture of cereal rye seeded in the fall, however, did reduce seedling height and biomass of C. canadensis consistently, but not density. This reduction in seedling height and biomass was likely caused by the allelopathic compound BOA, which reduced seedling root development. Control of C. canadensis seedlings in the spring required the higher registered rates of dicamba or saflufenacil. The addition of shallow fall tillage and the presence of cereal rye did not improve the variability in control observed notably with 2,4-D or the lower rates of saflufenacil or dicamba. With the implementation of complementary weed management strategies, environmental variables in any given year will likely have a direct influence on whether these interactions are additive or synergistic.
The adoption of conservation tillage systems has been challenged by concerns potential weed species shifts. A 9-yr study from 1988 to 1996 was conducted Delhi, Ontario, on a loamy sand soil to evaluate the effect of tillage systems (conventional [CT] and no-till [NT]), cover crop Secale cereale, and nitrogen (N) rate (0, 50, 100, 125, 150, and 200 kg N ha−1) on monocrop Zea mays L. (corn) yield and changes in the composition of the weed flora. CT consisted of spring moldboard plowing followed by cultivation with a tooth cultivator. Weed counts were taken in the last 3 yr of the study (1994, 1995, and 1996) prior to postemergence herbicide application and then again 2 to 3 wk after herbicide treatment. Composition or the weed flora was analyzed by canonical discriminant analysis (CDA). The relationship between weed density and tillage system was not consistent. Weed species composition differed between CT and NT systems. Chenopodium album and Amaranthus retroflexus were associated with CT and Digitaria sanguinalis with NT. N rate and cover crop did not affect weed density or species composition. Proper management of weeds with herbicides appeared to minimize any long-term effect on the weed flora resulting from varying N rates. Zea mays yields did not differ between CT and NT systems but were greater in both systems with a cover crop at the higher N rates. Disturbance caused by tillage was more important than N rate and cover crop as a mechanism influencing composition of the weed flora.
Continuous-cropping conservation tillage systems may provide a viable alternative to the practice of summer fallow; however, concerns have been raised regarding potentially negative changes in weed communities in continuous cropping. Field experiments were established in Saskatchewan at three locations to determine the nature of weed community differences between a crop sequence with and without fallow in zero-, minimum-, and conventional-tillage systems from 1986 to 1990. Weed communities in continuous-cropping treatments tended to have greater total densities and were more similar in composition than crop-fallow treatments. Inclusion or exclusion of fallow within the rotation had a greater impact on weed community composition than did tillage system at Ituna and Waldron, but the reverse was true at Tadmore due to poor crop growth in all tillage systems. Differences in weed community composition were generally characterized by fluctuational changes in species associations. Volunteers of summer-annual crops, such as canola, flax, and barley, were associated with continuous cropping, but other species including perennial weeds, such as Canada thistle, perennial sowthistle, and quackgrass, were not strongly associated with the presence or absence of fallow. The practice of fallowing land to manage weeds may not be necessary.
Field studies were conducted in 1986 and 1987 to determine the critical period for weed control in white bean grown in Ontario. The treatments consisted of either allowing weeds to infest the crop for increasing durations after planting or maintaining plots weed free for increasing durations after planting. The beginning of the critical period was defined as the crop stage by which weed interference reduced yields by 3%. Similarly, the end of the critical period was defined as the crop stage to which the crop had to be weed free to prevent a 3% yield loss. The critical period of weed control occurred between the second-trifoliolate and first-flower stages of growth for all cultivars and years, with the exception of the cultivar ‘OAC Seaforth’ in 1986. The average number of pods per plant for both cultivars was reduced by increasing durations of weed interference after planting in both years. However, pod number of the cultivar OAC Seaforth was reduced at a greater rate in 1986 than ‘Ex Rico 23’. The beginning of the critical period corresponded with the beginning of a rapid increase in total weed biomass.
Weed seed return and seedbank composition, with particular reference to common lambsquarters, were studied in four tillage systems established on a site near Fingal, Ontario. The tillage treatments were moldboard plow, chisel plow, ridge-till, and no-till. The cropping system was a cornsoybean rotation. Tillage effects on weed population composition were assessed after all weed control measures had been implemented. More than 60% of the weed seedbank was concentrated in the upper 5 cm of soil in chisel plow and no-till. The seedbank of the moldboard plow system was more uniformly distributed over depth and larger than the other systems. Common lambsquarters comprised more than 50% of the seedbank in all systems except ridge-till, but only dominated the aboveground weed population in chisel plow. Seedbank populations of common lambsquarters with moldboard plowing were greater than those with ridge-till and no-till, and chisel plow seedbank populations were greater than those in ridge-till. Chisel and moldboard plow systems generally had higher aboveground plant populations of common lambsquarters than the other two systems. Seed production per plant by common lambsquarters was equivalent among the four systems, but estimated seed production per unit area was higher in moldboard plow and chisel plow systems than in the other systems. Populations of common lambsquarters and similar species may produce more seeds and persist in moldboard plow and chisel plow systems; these weeds may produce fewer seeds per unit area and be easier to manage in no-till and ridge-till systems.
Three empirical crop yield loss models were used to describe the interference of redroot pigweed and Powell amaranth populations with soybean. Data were obtained from field experiments conducted in 1992 and 1993. Pigweed densities of 0 to eight plants m−1 were established within the soybean row. Pigweed sowing dates were selected so that weed seedling emergence coincided with VE, VC, and V2 soybean growth stages within the time frame of the critical weed-free period. The model incorporating pigweed density and time of emergence gave the best description of soybean yield loss in comparison to the two relative leaf area models. This model was fit to a combined data set of percent yield loss because parameter estimates did not differ among locations and years. Estimated soybean yield losses decreased from 16.4 to 0.5% with delayed pigweed emergence from 0 to 20 degree days. Leaf area of pigweed relative to soybean encompassed pigweed density and time of emergence. Relationship between relative leaf area and soybean yield loss was best described by the one-parameter model estimating a relative damage coefficient ‘q’ than the two-parameter model that also estimated maximum expected yield loss. The relative damage coefficient ‘q’ decreased with later times of leaf area assessment but could be predicted with one leaf area observation. Empirical models that incorporate time of weed emergence represent a step toward improving predictions of yield loss. This is important for the selection of cost-effective weed control strategies.
We constructed a mechanistic model of purple nutsedge tuber population dynamics to provide a theoretical framework for the integrated management of this weed. The model relies on a transition matrix with 10 age classes to simulate fluctuations in the tuber population. Parameters of the transition matrix are given by functions of density, age, and cumulated incident photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) underneath crop canopies. Sensitivity ratios based on a 10% reduction in parameter values indicated that the parameters of the birthrate function were most sensitive. Simulations showed that in the absence of weed control, cumulated incident PAR was by far the strongest determinant of population size; intraspecific interference was the strongest determinant of the rate of population increase. When weed control was introduced, the simulation suggested that 95% control would be required to eliminate this weed. The analysis of simulation results led to the formulation of five research hypotheses of practical relevance to the management of purple nutsedge. New insights gained by testing these hypotheses should lead to practical recommendations as well as a better understanding of the relationships between management practices and fluctuations in purple nutsedge populations.
Field studies were conducted in 1996 and 1997 at three locations throughout southern Ontario with the objective of developing dose-response curves of RPA 201772 for weed control and crop tolerance in corn. The biologically effective doses required to control redroot pigweed, velvetleaf, and wild mustard were 100, 90, and 80 g/ha, respectively. Yellow foxtail was controlled with 100 to 120 g/ha, while rates for common lambsquarters varied from 60 to 130 g/ha, depending on the year and location. Wild buckwheat control was poor (> 30%) at all of the doses tested. RPA 201772 did not reduce corn grain yield; however, temporary crop injury was evident on coarse sandy soils.
The influence of weeds on crop yield is not only dependent on weed-related factors such as density and time of emergence, but also on environmental and management factors that affect both the weed and crop through time. This study was undertaken to develop the first physiologically based dry bean model that would account for the influence of weed competition. The specific objective was to develop a model that would account for the influence of weed competition on crop yield, and to use this model to test the hypothesis that crop yield losses resulted from competition for photosynthetically active radiation (PAR). To this end, a model that simulated the growth and development of dry bean was developed. The model performed daily calculations and simulated the phenology, leaf area expansion, dry matter production and distribution, and grain yield of dry bean based on weather and management information, but assumed adequate water and nutrients. The model was calibrated without weed competition at two locations and yr, and for these situations, adequately described the growth and development of the crop. Simulations were then run for five common ragweed densities and two times of emergence. Common ragweed leaf area was read into the model from input files and used to simulate weed shading. Shading of the dry bean canopy by common ragweed accounted for about 50 to 70% of the yield losses observed in field studies when weeds emerged with the crop. Weed shading did not account for the yield reduction measured from weeds that emerged at the second trifoliate stage of crop growth. The agreement between model predictions and field studies was consistent with the hypothesis that competition for PAR was a principal factor in weed-crop interaction. The ability to account for differences in weed densities, management, and environmental conditions suggested that modeling was a useful tool for evaluating the interaction among weeds and crops.
The awareness and adoption of conservation tillage is one of the most important changes taking place in agriculture today. There are, however, concerns regarding weed species shifts under conservation tillage. Under conservation tillage, shifts toward grass, perennial, wind-disseminated weeds and volunteer crop plants have been observed. Shifts in weed species composition may either represent long-term ecological succession or temporary fluctuations in species composition; few long-term studies have examined the ecology of these shifts in detail. Further studies are needed to identify mechanisms driving these shifts to determine whether they are fluctuational or successional and to develop more sophisticated management strategies. In this paper, we present a research approach for studying ecological processes such as competition within a hierarchical framework of all possible causes, processes, and defining factors related to weed succession under conservation tillage. Succession management strategies can be developed to act at the causal level in the successional hierarchy. Three primary causes are site availability, colonization, and species performance. Site availability may be controlled through “designed disturbance”, while differential species availability may be regulated through “controlled colonization” and species performance may be regulated through “controlled species performance”. In general, the goals of succession management would involve reducing populations of the weed species most likely to proliferate under conservation tillage. Comprehensive ecological research, within the hierarchical framework outlined here, would identify potential problems and enable management strategies to account for the numerous factors that may be influencing fluctuations and succession of weeds under conservation tillage.
Adverse changes in weed communities are a limiting factor for the adoption of conservation tillage practices. Predictions of an increased association of annual and perennial grasses, perennial dicot weeds, wind-disseminated species, and volunteer crops as weeds, and decreased association of annual dicot weeds in reduced-tillage systems were tested. Field experiments involving zero-, minimum-, and conventional-tillage systems were conducted in Saskatchewan from 1986 to 1990 at Ituna and Waldron, and from 1986 to 1988 at Tadmore. Weed community composition was analyzed for years 1988 to 1990 by canonical discriminant analysis. An increased association of perennial and annual grasses with zero tillage did not generally occur. Wind-dispersed species and volunteer crops were associated with reduced tillage and summer annual dicots with conventional tillage, but exceptions occurred. Species responded differently among sites or within a site over time. Within the time frame of this research, changes in weed communities were influenced more by location and year than by tillage systems, indicating fluctuational rather than directional or consistent changes in community composition.
Field studies were conducted in southern Ontario to determine the critical period of weed control in grain corn and the influence of weed interference on corn leaf area. The Gompertz and logistic equations were fitted to data representing increasing durations of weed control and weed interference, respectively. The beginning of the critical period varied from the 3- to 14-leaf stages of corn development However, the end of the critical period was less variable and ended on average at the 14-leaf stage. Weed interference reduced corn leaf area by reducing the expanded leaf area of each individual leaf and accelerating senescence of lower leaves. In addition, weed interference up to the 14-leaf stage of corn development impeded leaf expansion and emergence in 1989.
A growing awareness of environmental issues in Canada has had a major influence on government policies. An initiative was launched by the government of Ontario to promote research toward the development of an integrated weed management (IWM) system. Research in IWM must take all aspects of the cropping system into consideration and evolve in a progressive manner. This approach must encompass the role of conservation tillage, knowledge of the critical period of weed interference, alternative methods of weed control, enhancement of crop competitiveness, modeling of crop-weed interference, influence of crop rotation and seed bank dynamics, and education and extension of the findings. The complexity involved in addressing these issues requires a multi-disciplinary approach.
DPX-79406 was evaluated for POST annual grass weed control in both controlled environment and field experiments. In controlled environment experiments, green foxtail was most susceptible to DPX-79406; whereas yellow foxtail was least susceptible of the species evaluated. DPX-79406 at 12 g/ha completely controlled six leaf black-seeded proso millet, yellow foxtail, green foxtail, and barnyardgrass. In the field, DPX-79406 at 3.0 to 25.0 g/ha effectively controlled annual grass weeds without injury to three- to six-leaf corn. There was more variation in the effectiveness of DPX-79406 applied in the field. Early POST applications provided less weed control than the late application, especially for barnyardgrass, because of weeds emerging after application. As a result, higher doses were sometimes needed for effective control. In weed-free field trials at two sites in 1990 and 1991, corn tolerated doses up to 75 g/ha of DPX-79406 applied at the three- to six-leaf growth stage. However, doses as low as 18.8 g/ha applied at the six- to nine-leaf growth stage reduced grain yield. In 1991, corn tillering increases and height and yield reductions were related linearly to the dose of DPX-79406 applied during later growth stages. DPX-79406 should be applied early POST in order to avoid crop injury while providing effective weed control.
To predict weed emergence and help farmers make weed management decisions, we constructed a mathematical model of seed germination for green and redroot pigweed based on temperature and water potential (moisture) and expressing cumulative germination in terms of thermal time (degree days). Empirical observations indicated green pigweed germinated at a lower base temperature than redroot pigweed but the germination rate of redroot pigweed is much faster as mean temperature increases. Moisture limitation delayed seed germination until 23.8 C (green pigweed) or 27.9 (redroot pigweed); thereafter, germination was independent of water potential as mean temperatures approached germination optima. Our germination model, based on a cumulative normal distribution function, accounted for 80 to 95% of the variation in seed germination and accurately predicted that redroot pigweed would have a faster germination rate than green pigweed. However, the model predicted that redroot pigweed would germinate before green pigweed (in thermal time) and was generally less accurate during the early period of seed germination. The model also predicted that moisture limitation would increase, rather than delay, seed germination. These errors were related to the mathematical function chosen and analyses used, but an explicit interaction term for water potential and temperature is also needed to produce an accurate model. We also tested the effect of mean temperature on shoot elongation (emergence) and described the relationship by a linear model. Base temperatures for shoot elongation were higher than for seed germination. Shoot elongation began at 15.6 and 14.4 C for green and redroot pigweed, respectively; they increased linearly with temperature until the optimum of 27.9 C was reached. Elongation was dependent on completion of the rate-limiting step of radicle emergence and was sensitive to temperature but not moisture; hence, elongation was sensitive to a much smaller temperature range. Beyond mathematical changes, we are testing our model in the field and need to link it to ecophysiological, genetic, and spatially explicit population processes for it to be useful in decision support for weed management.
Field studies were conducted at three locations over 2 yr in southern Ontario to determine the critical period of weed control in soybean. This period generally consisted of two discrete periods, a critical weed-free period and a critical time of weed removal. The critical weed-free period was relatively short in duration and consistent across locations and years. A period of weed control lasting up to the fourth node growth stage (V4), approximately 30 days after emergence (DAE), was adequate to prevent a yield loss of more than 2.5%. The critical time of weed removal was variable across locations and years and ranged, for example, from the second node growth stage (V2) to the beginning pod growth stage (R3), approximately 9 to 38 DAE, at a 2.5% yield loss level. A phenologically based period of most rapid yield loss due to weed interference occurred from beginning bloom stage (R1) to beginning seed stage (R5). The short and consistent critical weed-free period indicates the duration of residual herbicide control necessary in soybean and supports use of nonresidual, postemergence herbicides and mechanical weed control.
Economic decision rules for postemergence herbicide control of barnyardgrass in corn were developed. Damage and control functions that formed the basis of an economic model were estimated. Barnyardgrass density and time of emergence relative to the crop were fundamental to calculate the damage function. The control function described barnyardgrass dry weight response to variable doses of two herbicides. Both the biologist's and economist's weed control decision rules, derived from the economic model, were influenced by time of weed emergence relative to the crop, corn yield, and price. Inclusion of time of weed emergence relative to the crop improved our interpretative ability of derived decision rules. The biologist's threshold weed density was more sensitive to changes in parameter values than the economist's optimal herbicide dose strategy. Herbicide use with recommended label dose was greater than either the economically optimal or the biologically effective doses. Use of the biologically effective dose for postemergence weed control decisions was cost efficient and could be of practical significance to corn growers.
Field studies were conducted in 1988/89 and 1989/90 at two locations to determine the effect of rye, wheat, and triticale cover crop mulches on weed emergence patterns, weed biomass, and soybean development. Redroot pigweed and common lambsquarters emergence patterns were not altered by mulches. Early in the season, mulches reduced weed biomass; however, the results were inconsistent between locations and years. Under weed-free conditions, the cover crop mulches had no detrimental effects on soybean development and yields were not different from bare soil controls.
The acceptance of no-till crop production systems has been limited due to expected problems with weed management. Field experiments were established at two locations in Ontario in 1988 and one location in 1989. Band or broadcast applications of preemergence (PRE) combinations of high or low label rates of atrazine with or without metolachlor or inter-row cultivation, were evaluated for their effectiveness in controlling annual weeds in no-till corn. At each location, different herbicide and cultivation combinations were required to achieve adequate weed control. Corn grain yield was equivalent regardless of whether herbicides were applied as a band or broadcast treatment at all three sites. At two of the three sites, one cultivation combined with herbicides applied as a band was adequate to maintain weed control and corn grain yields. Selective application of herbicides in bands represented an approximate 60% reduction in total herbicide applied into the environment. The integration of a shallow post-plant inter-row cultivation combined with the soil conservation attributes of no-till, would enhance the sustainability of a modified no-till corn production system.