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Risk perception among nurses after the COVID-19 pandemic is a crucial factor affecting their attitudes and willingness to work in clinics. Those with poor psychological status could perceive risks sensitively as fears or threats that are discouraging. This article aimed to determine whether psychological outcomes, including post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, anxiety, and insomnia, following the COVID-19 pandemic were differentially related to the risk perceptions of nurses working in clinics and increased perceived risk.
The participants were 668 nurse clinicians from five local hospitals. Risk perceptions and psychological outcomes were measured by adapted questionnaires via the Internet. Latent profile analysis (LPA) identified subgroups of individuals who showed similar profiles regarding the perceived risks in nursing. Multinomial regression and probit regression were used to examine the extent to which sociodemographic and psychological outcomes predicted class membership.
LPA revealed four classes: groups with low-, mild-, moderate-, and high-level risk perceptions. Membership of the high-level risk perception class was predicted by the severity of psychological outcomes. Anxiety significantly accounted for a moderate increase in risk perceptions, while the symptoms of insomnia, depression, and PTSD accelerated the increase to the high level of risk perception class.
By classifying groups of nurse clinicians sharing similar profiles regarding risk perceptions and then exploring associated predictors, this study shows the psychological outcomes after COVID-19 significantly impacted pandemic-associated risk perceptions and suggests intervening in nurses' psychological outcomes while simultaneously focusing on work-related worries is important following the outbreak of COVID-19.
To explore the accuracy of estimated 24-h urinary iodine excretion (24-h UIEest) in assessing iodine nutritional status.
Fasting venous blood, 24-h and spot urine samples were collected during the day. The urinary iodine concentration (UIC) and urinary creatinine concentration (UCrC) were measured, and the urinary iodine-to-creatinine ratio (UI/Cr), 24-h UIEest, and 24-h urinary iodine excretion (24-h UIE) were calculated. At the population level, correlation and consistency between UIC, UI/Cr, 24-h UIEest and 24-h UIE were assessed using correlation analysis and Bland–Altman plots. At the individual level, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to analyse the accuracy of the above indicators for evaluating insufficient and excessive iodine intake. The reference interval of 24-h UIEest was established based on percentile values.
Indicator can accurately evaluate individual iodine nutrition during pregnancy remains controversial.
Pregnant women (n 788).
Using 24-h UIE as standard, the correlation coefficients of 24-h UIEest from different periods of the day ranged from 0·409 to 0·531, and the relative average differences ranged from 4·4 % to 10·9 %. For diagnosis of insufficient iodine intake, the area under the ROC curve of 24-h UIEest was 0·754, sensitivity and specificity were 79·6 % and 65·4 %, respectively. For diagnosis of excessive iodine intake, the area of 24-h UIEest was 0·771, sensitivity and specificity were 66·7 % and 82·0 %, respectively. The reference interval of 24-h UIEest was 58·43–597·65 μg.
Twenty-four-hour UIEest can better indicate iodine nutritional status at a relatively large sample size in a given population of pregnant women. It can be used for early screening at the individual level to obtain more lead time for pregnant women.
The prevalence of impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and diabetes mellitus (DM) has reportedly increased significantly among Chinese children and adolescents. We aimed to examine the prevalence of IFG and DM, the disparities in sex and region and related risk factors among Chinese children and adolescents. A total of 16 434 Chinese children aged 6–17 years were selected from a national cross-sectional survey, and fasting glucose was measured for all participants. Overall, mean fasting plasma glucose (FPG) concentration was (4·64 (sd 0·51)) mmol/l, and the prevalence of DM and IFG was 0·10 and 1·89 %, respectively. Compared with girls, boys had higher FPG concentration (4·69 v. 4·58 mmol/l, r 0·107, P<0·001) and IFG prevalence (2·67 v. 1·07 %, rφ 0·059, P<0·001). Compared with rural children and adolescents, urban children and adolescent had higher FPG concentration (4·65 v. 4·62 mmol/l, r 0·029, P<0·001) and DM prevalence (0·15 v. 0·05 %, rφ 0·016, P<0·01). In addition, self-reported fried foods intake and overweight/obesity were positively associated with IFG, and the proportion of consuming fried foods more than or equal to once per week and overweight/obesity prevalence in boys and urban children and adolescents were significantly higher than girls and rural children and adolescents, respectively (P<0·05). Although the prevalence of IFG and DM was relatively low in Chinese children and adolescents, sex and region disparities were observed, which may be associated with differences in overweight/obesity prevalence and dietary factors.
Intermetallic composite has been expected to be one kind of high-performance wear material at elevated temperature due to its inherent high hardness and strong atomic bonds. This paper presents the wear behaviors under elevated temperature conditions of NiMo/Mo2Ni3Si intermetallic “in situ” composite. Metallographic observations were carried out with optical microscope and scanning electron microscope. Elevated-temperature wear tests were performed under pin-on-disc mode dry sliding conditions. Results shown that the relative wear resistant property of NiMo/Mo2Ni3Si alloys at 500 °C is over 7 times, and become higher at 550 °C compared with austenitic 1Cr18Ni9Ti stainless steel. The effect of temperature and applied load on elevated-temperature wear resistance of alloy was evaluated. The corresponding wear mechanism is also reported through examining the worn surface, subsurface, and wear debris of the NiMo/Mo2Ni3Si intermetallic alloys which is found to be soft abrasive wear.
This commentary reviews Chinese management research since its beginning more than thirty years ago and considers the emerging paths that contemporary scholars may follow. Following Barney and Zhang's (2009) article as well as Whetten's article (2009) in this issue, we first clarify what the two paths (a theory of Chinese management and a Chinese theory of management) would mean for the Chinese scholar. We then discuss the possible interplay between these two paths and suggest it is time to take the road less travelled rather than to over-travel the more popular road. We conclude that practice will prove the final judge on the paths pursued and that the insights from the Barney and Zhang and Whetten articles help sharpen our understanding of the challenges.
The Wadian site is located at Yuzhou City, Henan Province. It is a large settlement site of the Longshan culture and it is dated to 4225-3755 BP. According to an archaeozoological study four domestic animals such as dog, pig, sheep and cattle were found on the site. The purpose of our study is to discuss the problem of how strontium isotope analysis can be used to identify non-local individuals at the Wadian site. Tooth Enamel and bone samples from 11 animal individuals were analysed for strontium isotope ratio (87Sr/86Sr), by the thermal ionization mass spectrometry, including five pigs, four mice, one sheep and one cow. Molars were sampled whenever possible in faunal species. According to the local strontium isotopes ratio range two pigs, one sheep and one cow from the Wadian site fell well outside the local strontium isotopes ratio range and were considered to be non-local.
Key Words:Wadian Site, Fauna, Strontium Isotopes
In recent years, isotopic tracers have been employed in many studies to map the geographical movement of certain materials and species (Towers et al. 2010, 509; Copeland et al. 2010,1 437; Kennedy et al. 1997, 766; Blum et al. 2000, 87; Aberg, 1995, 309). Similar methods were introduced in archaeology two decades ago for the investigation of residential changes among prehistoric humans (Ericson 1985, 503). Of all the isotopes that are currently analysed in archaeological skeletal tissues, strontium isotopes are among the most effective for characterizing prehistoric human and animal mobility and their study is a hotspot in the international archaeometric field. Strontium isotope analysis of dental tissues can be used to reveal patterns of movement in animals (Bentley 2006, 135).
In principle, the method is quite simple. Strontium has a geological origin and four naturally occurring isotopes: non-radiogenic 84Sr, 86Sr and 88Sr, and the radiogenic 87Sr. 87Sr is formed through the radioactive decay of rubidium (87Rb—87Sr+β-—υ+Q). It may be demonstrated theoretically that the 87Sr content of a rock is dependent on the 87Rb content and the age of the rock. Different rocks are characterized by distinct ratios of two isotopes of strontium, 87Sr and 86Sr. As rocks are weathered into soils, the plants growing in those soils acquire the 87Sr/86Sr ratio.
The different effects of ethanol on insulin sensitivity may be due to complex reasons. Here, we focus on the various daily ethanol consumption frequencies in rats fed a high-fat (HF) diet and explore the possible mechanism mediated by adiponectin and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). A total of thirty-six male Wistar rats were fed a HF diet and were randomly divided into three groups: those that received tap water (C); those that received ethanol via a gastric tube twice per d (E1); those that received free access to ethanol for drinking (E2). The total daily ethanol dosage in groups E1 and E2 were the same (5 g/kg per d). At the end of 18 weeks, insulin sensitivity was evaluated. Adiponectin AMPK and GLUT4 levels were determined. We found that the different administration frequencies led to markedly different plasma ethanol concentrations and there were intimate relationships between plasma ethanol concentration and insulin sensitivity. Insulin resistance was markedly improved in group E1, whereas only a slight improvement was observed in group E2. Accordingly, adiponectin, phosphorylated AMPK and GLUT4 levels were significantly increased in group E1. Based on these findings, we propose that ethanol concentration might be the major influencing factor mediating the effect of ethanol on insulin sensitivity. At a total daily dosage of 5 g/kg per d, twice daily administration of ethanol was more beneficial than continuous drinking. The protective effect of ethanol might be mediated by increased adiponectin levels, which subsequently improve the activation of AMPKα and GLUT4 expression in adipose tissue.
The synthesis of Au and Ag metal nanoparticles stabilized by G4, G5, and G6 hyperbranched poly(amine–ester) (HPAE) is reported. The reduction of hydrogen tetrachloroaurate and silver nitrate in the presence of HPAE resulted in the formation of stable, uniform, water-soluble nanoparticles. The average particle sizes are (2.4 ±0.5)–(4.1 ±0.4) nm for Au and (2.5 ±4.9)–(10.3 ±1.7) nm for Ag, depending on the generation of HPAE and metal ion-to-end tertiary amine of HPAE (M:N) used. All of the obtained colloidal solutions are stable for a long period of time. The results from ultraviolet–visible absorption spectra and Fourier transform infrared absorption spectroscopic investigations confirm the interactions between metal and HPAE.
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