To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
The mortality of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) differs between countries and regions. This study aimed to clarify the clinical characteristics of imported and second-generation cases in Shaanxi. This study included 134 COVID-19 cases in Shaanxi outside Wuhan. Clinical data were compared between severe and non-severe cases. We further profiled the dynamic laboratory findings of some patients. In total, 34.3% of the 134 patients were severe cases, 11.2% had complications. As of 7 March 2020, 91.8% patients were discharged and one patient (0.7%) died. Age, lymphocyte count, C-reactive protein, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, direct bilirubin, lactate dehydrogenase and hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase showed difference between severe and no-severe cases (all P < 0.05). Baseline lymphocyte count was higher in survived patients than in non-survivor case, and it increased as the condition improved, but declined sharply when death occurred. The interleukin-6 (IL-6) level displayed a downtrend in survivors, but rose very high in the death case. Pulmonary fibrosis was found on later chest computed tomography images in 51.5% of the pneumonia cases. Imported and second-generation cases outside Wuhan had a better prognosis than initial cases in Wuhan. Lymphocyte count and IL-6 level could be used for evaluating prognosis. Pulmonary fibrosis as the sequelae of COVID-19 should be taken into account.
Aquafeeds for carnivorous species face a nutritional–technological conundrum: containing sufficient starch to meet specific manufacturing requirements for binding, extrusion and expansion, but ideally containing as little starch as possible owing to their limited ability to utilise carbohydrates. The present study evaluated the effects of dietary starch with different amylose to amylopectin ratios and resistant starch contents on growth performance, hepatic glycogen accumulation and glucose metabolism of an important cultured carnivorous finfish, largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides). A common starch source (α-cassava starch (CS)) was tested as is or after being enzymatically de-branched at three different inclusion levels in diets for largemouth bass. Results showed that the increased dietary starch levels compromised performance and high dietary α-CS content led to obvious liver damage. However, the growth performances of fish fed the diets with de-branched starch (DS) were improved, and no manifest liver damages were observed even at the higher inclusion level. The increasing dietary starch contents significantly increased hepatic glycogen accumulation, but not when DS was used. High dietary starch content, without regard to starch sources, had no effect on the expression of glucose metabolism-related genes, except for down-regulation of insulin receptor expression. However, the use of dietary DS promoted the expression of genes involved in the insulin pathway and glycolysis. In conclusion, this study showed that the use of starch sources with a high amylose to amylopectin ratio and resistant starch in the feed for cultured carnivorous finfish could alleviate the hepatic glycogen deposition through regulating the insulin pathway and glycolysis.
As for the efficient dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), one of the important goals is to increase the light harvesting efficiency to further improve the photoelectric conversion efficiency (PCE). The excellent photoanode materials should possess a uniform porous structure, a large surface area, high crystallinity, and good stability. Herein, the porous TiO2 electrode (named as S-1.5) with the above merits had been prepared by the simple template-assisted method with camphene as the pore-forming reagent. The surface area of the porous TiO2 electrode can be tailored by introducing the amount of camphene. The porous TiO2 layer with the optimal surface area directly adhered on the top of the ultra-thin P25 dense layer had been constructed and this unique electrode with a “double layers structure”, which named as S-1.5/P25. When DSSCs assembled with this photoanode, a desirable PCE of 8.31% had been achieved, which was obviously higher than that of the commercial P25 (7.62%) in parallel. The improved PCE can be attributed to the improved utilization of sunlight, the facilitated photo-generated electron transfer, and the reduced interface resistance. Meanwhile, the related characterization including electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, intensity-modulated photovoltage spectroscopy, and intensity-modulated photocurrent spectroscopy was characterized to explore the possible mechanism.
Outbreaks of norovirus-associated gastroenteritis have been reported in schools in recent decades in China. For early warning and response to infectious disease outbreaks, the Shanghai Infectious Diseases Bud Event Surveillance System (IDBESS) was established in 2016. Bud event is a term used for the early sign of a potential infectious disease outbreak in public settings when the first few cases appear. This study aimed to describe the epidemiological characteristics of Norovirus-associated gastroenteritis bud events from June 2016 to December 2017 and to understand factors influencing the severity of events. Data were extracted from the IDBESS, supplemented by field investigations and school absence surveillance. In total, 189 bud events of Norovirus-associated gastroenteritis were reported in schools and kindergartens, affecting 3827 individuals and 52.38% happened in primary schools. The attack rate of Norovirus-associated gastroenteritis was 3.82% on average in students in the affected schools. In each event, case numbers varied between 5 and 148, with a median of 16. The duration of bud events lasted for 2 days on average. School absence happened in 47.93% (1797/3749) of affected students and the average duration of absence was 3.07 days. It was found that a longer delay before reporting was associated with a longer-lasting duration of bud event (OR = 2.25, 95% CI: 1.65, 3.07). In conclusion, ascribed to the sensitive threshold for alerting and the timely field investigation, the surveillance of bud events of Norovirus-associated gastroenteritis is effective in the control of Norovirus infection among preschool children and students in Shanghai.
This study investigated the predictive effects of executive functions on bilingual language control processes. We used a flanker task, a switching task and an n-back task to investigate inhibition, shifting, and updating, respectively. We adopted a cued language switching task to investigate the language control processes during bilingual word production. Results of linear mixed effects models showed that picture naming in switch trials was significantly slower and elicited larger stimulus-locked N2 and N400-like components. The results further showed that the flanker effect alone robustly predicted the variability of the N2 but not N400-like switch effects. These findings suggest that domain-general inhibition appears to predict the intensity of inhibition exerted on the lexical items in the non-target language during bilingual word production, but bilingual language control only partially overlaps with executive functions.
This research communication describes a genome-wide association study for Italian buffalo mammary gland morphology. Three single nucleotide polymorphisms (AX-85117983, AX-8509475 and AX-85117518) were identified to be significantly associated with buffalo anterior teat length, posterior teat length and distance between anterior and posterior teat, respectively. Two significant signals for buffalo mammary gland morphology were observed in two genomic regions on the chromosome 10, and chromosome 20. One of the regions located on the chromosome 10 has the most likely candidate genes ACTC1 and GJD2, both of which have putative roles in the regulation of mammary gland development. This study provides new insights into the genetic variants of buffalo mammary gland morphology and may be beneficial for understanding of the genetic regulation of mammary growth.
A novel solid-clad-by-liquid method was developed to form a 10-m long by 10-mm wide by 80-μm thick Ni–5 at.% W/Ni–9.3 at.% W/Ni–5 at.% W composite tape. Three deformation routes (cold rolling, cold rolling with intermediate annealing, and cold rolling combined with warm rolling) have been investigated in short Ni–5 at.% W/Ni–9.3 at.% W/Ni–5 at.% W composite substrate. To optimize the dynamic continuous annealing parameters for the long composite substrates, air-cooled and furnace-cooled annealing procedures were compared in short Ni–5 at.% W/Ni–9.3 at.% W/Ni–5 at.% W composite substrates. Improved cube texture of 98.7% in a 10-m long by 10-mm wide by 80-μm thick Ni–5 at.% W/Ni–9.3 at.% W/Ni–5 at.% W composite substrate was achieved via warm rolling deformation at 550 °C and two-step dynamic continuous annealing (750 °C for 1 h followed by 1200 °C for 1 h). The yield strength, Curie temperature, and saturation magnetization of 176 MPa, 324 K, and 18 emu/g, respectively, were obtained.
Effective suppression of transverse stimulated Raman scattering (TSRS) in a large-aperture potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP) crystal is an important scientific and technical problem in high-intensity laser research and applications. In this work, a method to suppress TSRS using pulse stacking is proposed. The method suppresses TSRS significantly, with greater numbers of subpulses producing more obvious suppression effects, and the threshold intensity growth rate of the 3ω laser in the KDP crystal reaches up to about 1.9 when the stacked pulse contains four subpulses. This suppression effect is attributed to the fact that the polarization directions of adjacent subpulses are perpendicular to each other. The method can be used to suppress other nonlinear effects, including transverse stimulated Brillouin scattering in large-aperture optical devices and stimulated rotational Raman scattering in long air paths.
Transverse stimulated Raman scattering (TSRS) is strongly generated in the third-harmonic-generation crystal potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP) and can even damage the KDP crystal in inertial confinement fusion drivers. In this work, a method to suppress TSRS is proposed in which the polarization control plate (PCP) is moved to a new position in the existing optical path. The proposed method can suppress TSRS significantly and doubles the laser threshold intensity in KDP crystal when the order of the PCP is 16. This result is attributed to the reduction of the gain length for the Stokes radiation. The proposed method may also be used to suppress other nonlinear effects, including transverse stimulated Brillouin scattering in large-aperture optical components.
Scabies is a parasitic disease caused by the ectoparasite Sarcoptes scabiei, affecting different mammalian species, including rabbits, worldwide. In the present study, we cloned and expressed a novel inorganic pyrophosphatase, Ssc-PYP-1, from S. scabiei var. cuniculi. Immunofluorescence staining showed that native Ssc-PYP-1 was localized in the tegument around the mouthparts and the entire legs, as well as in the cuticle of the mites. Interestingly, obvious staining was also observed on the fecal pellets of mites and in the integument of the mites. Based on its good immunoreactivity, an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using recombinant Ssc-PYP-1 (rSsc-PYP-1) as the capture antigen was developed to diagnose sarcoptic mange in naturally infected rabbits; the assay had a sensitivity of 92·0% and specificity of 93·6%. Finally, using the rSsc-PYP-1-ELISA, the Ssc-PYP-1 antibody from 10 experimentally infected rabbits could be detected from 1 week post-infection. This is the first report of S. scabiei inorganic pyrophosphatase and the protein could serve as a potential serodiagnostic candidate for sarcoptic mange in rabbits.
The effects of high magnetic fields on the solidification structures of ternary Al–Fe–Zr alloy were investigated. The results showed that the primary Al3Fe crystals mainly show bar-like form, whereas the unmelted Al3Zr crystals reveal tabular and the newly crystallized primary Al3Zr crystals have fine/coarse needle-like forms. When a 12 T magnetic field is applied, the primary Al3Fe crystals are distributed homogenously and the fine needle-like primary Al3Zr levitated. Moreover, the primary Al3Fe crystals align horizontally in the upper but vertically in the lower part of the specimen. The needle-like primary Al3Zr crystals align vertically, whereas the tabular ones have their two opposite corners on the large surfaces toward the positive and negative magnetic field direction. Crystallographic analysis indicates that 〈100〉 and 〈110〉 are the preferred axes of the primary Al3Fe and the Al3Zr crystals with respect to the magnetic field, respectively. The redistribution and realignments of the crystals are discussed.
Previous studies have thoroughly investigated the prevalence and risk factors for completed suicide. In marked contrast is the lack of a better understanding of attempted suicide in the elderly. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of attempted suicide in the elderly and examine the associated factors.
Using a multi-stage cluster sampling approach, a cross-sectional survey of 8,399 elderly house-dwelling residents was conducted in Shanghai, China.
The two-week prevalence of attempted suicide in the elderly was 0.75%. In the bivariate analysis, having no caregivers, depressive, anxiety, sad, fear, obsessive-compulsive and anger symptom, and lower scores on the Barthel Index of Activities of Daily Living and the Lawton Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Scale were significantly associated with an increased risk of attempted suicide in the elderly. In the multivariate analysis, sad and fear symptoms were significantly and independently associated with a higher risk of attempted suicide in the elderly.
The two-week prevalence of attempted suicide in the elderly is relatively high when compared with the annualized or lifetime prevalence reported in China and foreign settings. Elderly individuals with certain mental symptoms should be targeted for suicide prevention and provided with timely mental health support.
The well-ordered TiO2 nanotube arrays with controlled aspect ratio are
fabricated via potentiostatic anodization. The aspect ratio of TiO2
nanotube array can be tuned conveniently by changing the water content in
electrolyte and anodization time. The formation of well-ordered TiO2
nanotube array is good for the photogenerated electron transfer. So, the
well-ordered TiO2 nanotube array photoelectrodes have been used to
fabricate dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). It is found that, with the optimum
nanotube length and aspect ratio, DSSCs with TiO2 nanotube array
photoelectrodes show better photoelectric conversion efficiency (2.60%) than
that with TiO2 nanoparticles on Ti foil photoelectrode. It is
elucidated by the interfacial electron transport of DSSCs, which are
characterized quantitatively, using the electrochemical impedance spectra. The
DSSC with optimal nanotube length and aspect ratio displays the fastest
interfacial electron transfer and longer electron lifetime.
To possess the merits of both building blocks, i.e., the rapid interfacial electron transport of ZnO nanoneedles (NNs) and the high surface area of TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs), the ZnO NN and TiO2 NP composite photoelectrodes were prepared with controllable weight ratio. The dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) prototypes were fabricated based on this composite photoelectrodes, and the photoelectrical properties have been systematically studied. The results indicate that the composite cells achieve higher power conversion efficiency compared to pure TiO2 NP cells by rational tuning the weight ratio of ZnO NNs and TiO2NPs. The DSSC with 1 wt% ZnO NNs yields the highest η of 5.16%. It is elucidated by the interfacial electron transfer of DSSC with different weight of ZnO NNs using the electrochemical impedance spectra. And it is found that the DSSC with 1 wt% ZnO NNs displays the fastest interfacial electron transfer.
The different effects of ethanol on insulin sensitivity may be due to complex reasons. Here, we focus on the various daily ethanol consumption frequencies in rats fed a high-fat (HF) diet and explore the possible mechanism mediated by adiponectin and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). A total of thirty-six male Wistar rats were fed a HF diet and were randomly divided into three groups: those that received tap water (C); those that received ethanol via a gastric tube twice per d (E1); those that received free access to ethanol for drinking (E2). The total daily ethanol dosage in groups E1 and E2 were the same (5 g/kg per d). At the end of 18 weeks, insulin sensitivity was evaluated. Adiponectin AMPK and GLUT4 levels were determined. We found that the different administration frequencies led to markedly different plasma ethanol concentrations and there were intimate relationships between plasma ethanol concentration and insulin sensitivity. Insulin resistance was markedly improved in group E1, whereas only a slight improvement was observed in group E2. Accordingly, adiponectin, phosphorylated AMPK and GLUT4 levels were significantly increased in group E1. Based on these findings, we propose that ethanol concentration might be the major influencing factor mediating the effect of ethanol on insulin sensitivity. At a total daily dosage of 5 g/kg per d, twice daily administration of ethanol was more beneficial than continuous drinking. The protective effect of ethanol might be mediated by increased adiponectin levels, which subsequently improve the activation of AMPKα and GLUT4 expression in adipose tissue.
Minor Fe additions are necessary to enhance the corrosion resistance of commercial Cu-Ni alloys. The present paper aims at optimizing the Fe content in three alloy series Cu90(Ni,Fe)10, Cu80(Ni,Fe)20, and Cu70(Ni,Fe)30 (at.%) from the viewpoint of their corrosion performance in a 3.5% NaCl solution. An Fe/Ni = 1/12 solid solubility limit line was revealed in the Cu-Ni-Fe phase diagram. Three Fe/Ni = 1/12 alloys, Cu90Ni9.23Fe0.77 (at.%) = Cu-8.6Ni-0.7Fe (wt.%), Cu80Ni18.46Fe1.54 = Cu-17.3Ni-1.4Fe, and Cu70Ni27.7Fe2.3 = Cu-26.2Ni-2.1Fe, show the best corrosion performances in their respective alloy series. The Fe/Ni = 1/12 solubility limit is explained by assuming isolated Fe-centered FeNi12 cuboctahedral clusters embedded in a Cu matrix. The three Fe/Ni = 1/12 alloys can be respectively described by cluster formulas [Fe1Ni12]Cu117, [Fe1Ni12]Cu52, and [Fe1Ni12]Cu30.3. The Fe/Ni = 1/12 rule may serve an important guideline in the industrial Cu-Ni alloy selection because above this limit, easy precipitation would negate the corrosion properties of the Cu-Ni-based alloys.
Image deconvolution is introduced as an effective tool to enhance the determination of crystal structures and defects in high-resolution electron microscopy. The essence is to transform a single image that does not intuitively represent the examined crystal structure into the structure image. The principle and method of image deconvolution together with the related image contrast theory, the pseudo weak phase object approximation (pseudo WPOA), are briefly described. The method has been applied to different types of dislocations, twin boundaries, stacking faults, and one-dimensional incommensurate modulated structures. Results on the semiconducting epilayers Si0.76Ge0.24/Si and 3C-SiC/Si are given in some detail. The results on other compounds including AlSb/GaAs, GaN, Y0.6Na0.4Ba2Cu2.7Zn0.3O7-δ, Ca0.28Ba0.72Nb2O6 and Bi2.31Sr1.69CuO6+δ are briefly summarized. It is also shown how to recognize atoms of Si from C based on the pseudo WPOA, when the defect structures in SiC was determined at the atomic level with a 200 kV LaB6 microscope.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.