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Microcapsules are successfully used in various applications such as self-healing, drug delivery and military camouflage. The shells of the microcapsules based on the traditional surfactant-stabilized emulsion template method are often single organic materials. The surfactants generally have insufficient stability against demulsification during preparation of the microcapsules. In the present study, kaolinite was used as an emulsifier for stabilizing Pickering emulsions and subsequently as an enhancer for forming microcapsules. Kaolinite-armoured polyurea microcapsules were fabricated based on the interfacial polymerization of isophorone diisocyanate at the oil–water interfaces of kaolinite-stabilized Pickering emulsions. The prepared microcapsules with core–shell structure were spherical and exhibited good dispersibility in anhydrous ethanol. The shell thickness (~0.5–1.0 μm) and diameter (~20.0–160.0 μm) of kaolinite-armoured polyurea microcapsules may be tailored by varying the dosages of isophorone diisocyanate and kaolinite and the emulsifying speed of the high-shear homogenizer. Hence, the encapsulation and release performance of microcapsules may be controlled. The kaolinite particles were embedded and armoured in a polyurea matrix. The formed kaolinite-embedded and -armoured polyurea structures might prolong the release of the encapsulated lipophilic Sudan Red (III) from 20 to 45 h. The microcapsules have controllable encapsulation and release characteristics for lipophilic compounds and are cost effective, making them suitable pesticides.
We have designed and developed the digital correlation receiver for Mingantu Spectral Radioheliograph (MUSER). The MUSER digital correlation receiver is implemented to sample, channelise, and correlate a 400 MHz wide solar radio signal of 40-antenna output from MUSER intermediate-frequency array and 60-antenna output from MUSER high-frequency array. The polyphase filter channeliser is used for wide-band channelisation and proved to be efficient to realise narrow-band filtering (
MHz) in a high-speed digital signal-processing pipeline (sampling rate
Gsps). All modules of the digital correlation receiver are implemented on FPGA-based hardware and integrated via high-speed backplane, which makes a well-performed and economical correlator system for MUSER array. The future upgrade is also addressed including spectral resolution enhancement and radio-frequency-interference excision.
Bipolar disorder is a highly heritable polygenic disorder. Recent
enrichment analyses suggest that there may be true risk variants for
bipolar disorder in the expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) in the
We sought to assess the impact of eQTL variants on bipolar disorder risk
by combining data from both bipolar disorder genome-wide association
studies (GWAS) and brain eQTL.
To detect single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that influence
expression levels of genes associated with bipolar disorder, we jointly
analysed data from a bipolar disorder GWAS (7481 cases and 9250 controls)
and a genome-wide brain (cortical) eQTL (193 healthy controls) using a
Bayesian statistical method, with independent follow-up replications. The
identified risk SNP was then further tested for association with
hippocampal volume (n = 5775) and cognitive performance
(n = 342) among healthy individuals.
Integrative analysis revealed a significant association between a brain
eQTL rs6088662 on chromosome 20q11.22 and bipolar disorder (log Bayes
factor = 5.48; bipolar disorder P =
5.85×10–5). Follow-up studies across multiple independent
samples confirmed the association of the risk SNP (rs6088662) with gene
expression and bipolar disorder susceptibility (P =
3.54×10–8). Further exploratory analysis revealed that
rs6088662 is also associated with hippocampal volume and cognitive
performance in healthy individuals.
Our findings suggest that 20q11.22 is likely a risk region for bipolar
disorder; they also highlight the informative value of integrating
functional annotation of genetic variants for gene expression in
advancing our understanding of the biological basis underlying complex
disorders, such as bipolar disorder.
The way in which the NE Tibetan Plateau uplifted and its impact on climatic change are crucial to understanding the evolution of the Tibetan Plateau and the development of the present geomorphology and climate of Central and East Asia. This paper is not a comprehensive review of current thinking but instead synthesises our past decades of work together with a number of new findings. The dating of Late Cenozoic basin sediments and the tectonic geomorphology of the NE Tibetan Plateau demonstrates that the rapid persistent rise of this plateau began ~8 ± 1 Ma followed by stepwise accelerated rise at ~3.6 Ma, 2.6 Ma, 1.8–1.7 Ma, 1.2–0.6 Ma and 0.15 Ma. The Yellow River basin developed at ~1.7 Ma and evolved to its present pattern through stepwise backward-expansion toward its source area in response to the stepwise uplift of the plateau. High-resolution multi-climatic proxy records from the basins and terrace sediments indicate a persistent stepwise accelerated enhancement of the East Asian winter monsoon and drying of the Asian interior coupled with the episodic tectonic uplift since ~8 Ma and later also with the global cooling since ~3.2 Ma, suggesting a major role for tectonic forcing of the cooling.
Uniform monodisperse nanospheres of tetra-kis(4-methoxylphenyl) porphynatemanganese (III) chloride [MnIII(TMOPP)Cl] of about 200 nm have been synthesized through a facile surfactant-assisted reprecipitation method at room temperature. Scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscope, infrared spectrum, ultraviolet–visible spectrum, and elemental analysis were adopted to characterize the as-prepared metalloporphyrin nanostructures. The influence factors in the reaction to the sizes and morphologies of porphyrin nanoparticles were discussed. The sizes of porphyrin nanoparticles were affected mainly by the porphyrin concentration and only monodisperse nanoshperes with high uniformity in sizes and shapes can self-assemble to form order two-dimensional superstructures.
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