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The Chinese Crested Tern Thalasseus bernsteini (CCT) is likely the most critically endangered seabird species in Asia. The Matsu, Penghu, Jiushan, and Wuzhishan Archipelagos along the China coastline, plus Yeonggwang County in South Korea, are the five areas where this species is currently confirmed to breed. According to census and historical data collected in the Matsu Archipelago from 2004 to 2017, there was an average of 10 ± 4 adult CCT individuals at the Matsu Islands Tern Refuge (MITR) during the breeding season. CCT nested only in association with Greater Crested Terns T. bergii (GCT) among seven protected islands in the MITR, and the numbers of observed breeding individuals of the two species were positively correlated (r = 0.59, P < 0.001). We used generalized linear models to examine the effects of chlorophyll-a concentrations in surrounding marine habitats, typhoon frequency, and in-season shifts in colony location on inter-annual variation in numbers of breeding individuals and productivity (chick:adult ratios) of both CCT and GCT at the MITR from 2004 to 2017. Average chlorophyll-a concentrations during July-August obtained from the MODIS satellite were positively correlated with the annual maximum number of GCT at the MITR, but not that of CCT. In addition, we found that nest abandonment events during early incubation at the mixed-species colonies were associated with in-season shifts in colony location and delayed nesting chronology, thereby extending nesting into the peak typhoon season during July and August. The effects of in-season colony shifts on nesting chronology and the additive effects of typhoons caused a significant decline in CCT breeding success during the study period. We propose more rigorous monitoring to ascertain the root causes of in-season colony shifts of terns and then determine possible solutions. Additionally, creating educational programmes to increase public awareness towards seabird conservation could prove beneficial.
A novel T-shaped-gated (T-Gate) polycrystalline silicon thin-film transistor (poly-Si TFT) with vacuum gaps has been proposed and fabricated only with a simple process. The T-Gate structure is formed only by a selective undercut-etching technology of the Mo/Al bi-layers. Then, vacuum gaps are in-situ embedded in this T-Gate structure subsequent to capping the SiH4-based passivation oxide under the vacuum process chamber. Experimental results reveal that the proposed T-Gate poly-Si TFTs have excellent electrical performance, which has higher maximum on-off current ratio of 4.6 e107, and the lower off-state leakage current at VGS = -10 V and VDS = 5V of about 100 times less than that of the conventional one. It is attributed to the additional undoped offset region and the vacuum gap to reduce the maximum electric field at drain junction while ascribed to the sub-gate to maintain the on-current. Therefore, such a T-Gate poly-Si TFT is very suitable for the applications and manufacturing in active matrix liquid crystal displays (AMLCDs) and active matrix organic light emitting diodes (AMOLEDs).
This paper presents the results of surface cleaning and passivation of Si and oxide surfaces for the growth of Si/oxide/Si structures. Silicon surfaces are cleaned by the spin—etch process prior to the growth of silicon oxide. A silicon layer is then deposited after subsequent surface cleaning and chemical treatment on the surface of oxide/Si. Both the oxide and the silicon layers are grown in a plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition system. The interface structure between layers of deposited Si/oxide/Si are observed by cross—section transmission electron microscopy (XTEM).
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