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This study aimed to investigate the relationship between depression in older nursing home residents and family caregivers’ (FCGs) depressive status and reasons for involvement with residents.
This study employed a cross-sectional design.
Eight nursing homes in northern Taiwan.
A total of 139 older resident–FCG pairs were recruited.
Depression was measured with the Geriatric Depression Scale-Short Form for nursing home residents and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale-Short Form for family members. Depression and demographic data were collected with face-to-face interviews. The meaning ascribed to caregivers’ nursing home visits was calibrated using the Family Meaning of Nursing-Home Visits scale. Multiple logistic regression was used to understand the factors related to residents’ depressive symptoms.
Depressive symptoms were present in 58.3% of the nursing home residents (n = 81). Depressive status of family members (Chi-square = 1.46, p = 0.23) or family’s visiting frequency (Chi-square = 1.64, p = 0.44) did not differ between residents with or without depressive symptoms. Factors associated with an increased risk of residents having depressive symptoms were age, self-perceived health status, and having a caregiver motivated to visit to assuage their guilt.
Visiting a family member to assuage their guilt was the only caregiver variable associated with depressive symptoms for nursing home residents. This finding suggests that developing interventions to improve personal relationships between nursing home residents and family members might facilitate the emotional support of caregivers and psychological support for older nursing home residents in Taiwan.
We aim to examine the relation of several folate forms (5-methyltetrahydrofolate (5-mTHF), unmetabolised folic acid (UMFA) and MeFox) with kidney function and albuminuria, which remained uncertain. The cross-sectional study was conducted in 18 757 participants from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2011–2018. The kidney outcomes were reduced estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) (<60 ml/min/1·73 m2), microalbuminuria (albumin:creatinine ratio (ACR) of 30–299 mg/g) and macroalbuminuria (ACR ≥ 300 mg/g). Overall, there were significant inverse associations between serum 5-mTHF and kidney outcomes with significant lower prevalence of reduced eGFR (OR, 0·71; 95 % CI: 0·57, 0·87) and macroalbuminuria (OR, 0·65; 95 % CI: 0·46, 0·91) in participants in quartiles 3–4 (v. quartiles 1–2; both Pfor trend across quartiles <0·05). In contrast, there were significant positive relationship between serum UMFA and kidney outcomes with significant higher prevalence of reduced eGFR in participants in quartiles 2–4 (v. quartile 1; OR, 2·12; 95 % CI: 1·45, 3·12; Pfor trend <0·001) and higher prevalence of macroalbuminuria in participants in quartile 4 (v. quartiles 1–3; OR, 1·46; 95 % CI: 1·06, 2·01; Pfor trend <0·001). However, there was no significant associations of 5-mTHF and UMFA with microalbuminuria. In addition, there were significant positive relationships of serum MeFox with reduced eGFR, microalbuminuria and macroalbuminuria (all Pfor trend <0·01). In conclusion, higher 5-mTHF level, along with lower UMFA and MeFox level, was associated with lower prevalence of kidney outcomes, which may help counsel future clinical trials and nutritional guidelines regarding the folate supplement.
Chest tube drainage placement, a standard procedure in video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery, was reported to cause perioperative complications like pain and increased risk of infection. The present study was designed to evaluate the necessity of chest tube drainage inpaediatric thoracoscopic surgery.
Thirty children admitted to our hospital from April 2018 to April 2020 were included in the current study and were grouped as the tube group (children receiving video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery with chest tube drainage) and the non-tube group (children receiving video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery without chest tube drainage). Laboratory hemogram index, length of hospitalisation, post-operative performance of involved children, and psychological acceptance of indicated therapy by guardians of the involved children were investigated.
Laboratory examination revealed that the mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration in the non-tube group was significantly higher than that in the tube group on post-operative day 1 (p < 0.05). Children in the non-tube group had a shorter length of hospitalisation (7–9 days) than that of patients from the tube group. Additionally, the frequency of crying of children was decreased and psychological acceptance by patients’ guardians was improved in the non-tube group when compared with the tube group.
This study showed that chest tube drainage placement may not be necessary in several cases of paediatric video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery. Rapid recovery with decreased perioperative complications in children operated by video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery without tube placement could also reduce the burden of the family and society both economically and psychologically.
We aimed to examine whether baseline neutrophil counts affected the risk of new-onset proteinuria in hypertensive patients, and, if so, whether folic acid treatment is particularly effective in proteinuria prevention in such a setting. A total of 8208 eligible participants without proteinuria at baseline were analysed from the renal substudy of the China Stroke Primary Prevention Trial. Participants were randomised to receive a double-blind daily treatment of 10 mg of enalapril and 0·8 mg of folic acid (n 4101) or 10 mg of enalapril only (n 4107). The primary outcome was new-onset proteinuria, defined as a urine dipstick reading of ≥1+ at the exit visit. The mean age of the participants was 59·5 (sd, 7·4) years, 3088 (37·6 %) of the participants were male. The median treatment duration was 4·4 years. In the enalapril-only group, a significantly higher risk of new-onset proteinuria was found among participants with higher neutrophil counts (quintile 5; ≥4·8 × 109/l, OR 1·44; 95 % CI 1·00, 2·06), compared with those in quintiles 1–4. For those with enalapril and folic acid treatment, compared with the enalapril-only group, the new-onset proteinuria risk was reduced from 5·2 to 2·8 % (OR 0·49; 95 % CI 0·29, 0·82) among participants with higher neutrophil counts (≥4·8 × 109/l), whereas there was no significant effect among those with neutrophil counts <4·8 × 109/l. In summary, among hypertensive patients, those with higher neutrophil counts had increased risk of new-onset proteinuria, and this risk was reduced by 51 % with folic acid treatment.
Having enterprises engaged in environmentally friendly behavior is an important part of reducing negative environmental impacts. This study makes a quantitative analysis against the backdrop of China's transitional economic system. The results show that politically-connected enterprises significantly reduce environmental expenditure, but this only holds for state-owned enterprises; private enterprises with political connections spend significantly more. Analysis of the efficiency of environmental expenditure indicates that, for private enterprises, environmental spending is used as a way to maintain political connections, with rent-seeking as the likely motivation. Politically-connected private enterprises have not reduced their emissions to the same extent as state-owned enterprises, despite increased expenditure. Given the scale of environmental degradation in China during a period of massive economic and social upheaval, the results of this analysis provide a quantitative case for policy change: governments should shift focus to the results that environmental spending produces.
The hygiene hypothesis posits that the decreased incidence of parasitic infection in developed countries may underlie an increased prevalence of allergic and autoimmune diseases in these countries. As unique inflammation modulator of intracellular parasitism, Trichinella spiralis, or its excretory–secretory (ES) product, shows improved responses to allergies, autoimmune diseases, inflammatory bowel disease, type 1 diabetes, rheumatic arthritis and autoimmune encephalomyelitis by exerting immunomodulatory effects on both innate and adaptive immune cells in animal models. Research has shown that T. spiralis differs from other helminths in manipulation of the host immune response not only by well-known characteristics of its life cycle, but also by its inflammation modulation pathway. How the parasite achieves inflammation modulation has not been fully elucidated yet. This review will generalize the mechanism and focuses on ES immunomodulatory molecules of T. spiralis that may be important for developing new therapeutics for inflammatory disorders.
Synaptotagmin 1 (Syt1) is an abundant and important presynaptic vesicle protein that binds Ca2+ for the regulation of synaptic vesicle exocytosis. Our previous study reported its localization and function on spindle assembly in mouse oocyte meiotic maturation. The present study was designed to investigate the function of Syt1 during mouse oocyte activation and subsequent cortical granule exocytosis (CGE) using confocal microscopy, morpholinol-based knockdown and time-lapse live cell imaging. By employing live cell imaging, we first studied the dynamic process of CGE and calculated the time interval between [Ca2+]i rise and CGE after oocyte activation. We further showed that Syt1 was co-localized to cortical granules (CGs) at the oocyte cortex. After oocyte activation with SrCl2, the Syt1 distribution pattern was altered significantly, similar to the changes seen for the CGs. Knockdown of Syt1 inhibited [Ca2+]i oscillations, disrupted the F-actin distribution pattern and delayed the time of cortical reaction. In summary, as a synaptic vesicle protein and calcium sensor for exocytosis, Syt1 acts as an essential regulator in mouse oocyte activation events including the generation of Ca2+ signals and CGE.
One of the critical prerequisites for accurately measuring the mechanical properties of profiled fibers is the precise determination of their cross-sectional areas (CSAs). In this study, a new method is established for determining a single profiled fibers’ CSA based on the frozen section method and digital photo, pixel-ratio method (FS-DP). FS-DP is used to obtain a transverse section of a fiber, by acquiring an image of the cross section using optical microscopy or scanning electron microscopy, and then calculating the CSA using Photoshop. Using FS-DP, it was found that the shape of a fiber of silk changes little in a range of 50 μm, but varies considerably over a range of 1 m, while the CSA of cocoon silk (900 m) first increases and then decreases. Mechanical property tests showed that the elongation, strength, elastic modulus, and toughness values of the cocoon silk are consistent with those reported previously. Additionally, FS-DP was also used to observe other profiled fibers. The application tests indicated that FS-DP can be used to quickly and accurately obtain the CSA of a single profiled fiber, and that it is suitable for the large-scale determination and analysis of the mechanical properties of profiled fibers.
Apathy is a condition characterized by a lack of motivation that manifests in emotional, behavioral, and cognitive domains. Although previous studies have indicated that apathy is associated with frontal lesions, few studies have focused on the different subdomains of apathy, and no in vivo human biochemical data have been obtained to examine the neurochemical changes related to apathy in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Thus, we investigated the frontal neurochemical alterations related to apathy among patients with AD using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS).
Apathy was assessed through the Apathy Evaluation Scale (AES). 1H MRS was performed to measure neurochemical metabolite levels in the anterior cingulate region and right orbitofrontal region. Associations between neurochemical metabolites and the total score and subscores of each domain of the AES were analyzed.
Altogether, 36 patients completed the study. Patients with lower N-acetylaspartate/creatine ratios (NAA/Cr) in the anterior cingulate region demonstrated higher total apathy scores (β = −0.56, p = 0.003) with adjustments for age, gender, educational level, dementia severity, and depression severity. In a further analysis, a lower NAA/Cr in the anterior cingulate region was associated with all subdomains of apathy, including cognition (β = −0.43, p = 0.028), behavior (β = −0.55, p = 0.002), and emotion (β = −0.50, p = 0.005). No statistically significant associations were discovered in the right orbitofrontal region.
Our results suggest that apathy, in each of its cognitive, behavioral, or emotional subdomains is associated with brain neurochemical alterations in the anterior cingulate region. Abnormal neuronal integrity over the anterior cingulate cortex may exhibit a central role in causing all aspects of apathy in patients with AD.
A series of self-assembled WO3–BiVO4 nanostructured thin films with 17, 25, 50, 67, and 100 mol% WO3 were grown on the (001) yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) substrate by pulsed laser deposition method. The microstructures including crystalline phases, epitaxial relationship, interface structures, and chemical composition distributions were investigated by a combination of various electron microscopy techniques including scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy. The monoclinic BiVO4 formed the matrix, in which WO3 nanopillars were embedded with specific epitaxial relationships. In BiVO4-rich sample, orthorhombic Bi2WO6 was formed. However, metastable hexagonal WO3 phase and orthorhombic WO3 phase coexisted in other composite samples. The thin amorphous layer at the film/substrate interface indicated that the mismatch strain between films and substrate is released. The hydrostatic tensile strain due to thermal expansion mismatch between BiVO4 and WO3 as well as the diffusion of Bi into the WO3 stabilized the metastable h-WO3. A WO3–BiVO4 pseudobinary phase diagram was proposed based on the magnitude of the thermal expansion mismatch and the distance of Bi diffusion, which can be applied to design the microstructures of WO3–BiVO4 heterojunctions and optimize their photoelectrochemical properties.
The prevalence of CHD has been well described worldwide except in Tibet. This study aimed to illustrate the prevalence and composition of CHD in Tibetan children according to altitude.
Methods and results
In the first part, we prospectively recruited 7088 unselected Tibetan children (4–17 years) from south-west Tibet. The total prevalence of CHD increased from 4.6/1000 below 4200 m to 13.4/1000 above 4700 m, with a female-to-male ratio of 1.3:3.1. The total prevalence and female prevalence of patent ductus arteriosus increased more than 10-fold. Females living above 4700 m had exceptionally high prevalence of patent ductus arteriosus (14.9/1000). The prevalence of atrial septal defect was comparable among different altitudes (3.3–3.8/1000). The prevalence of ventricular septal defect was 1.3/1000 below 4700 m, and no cases were found above this altitude. In the second part, we retrospectively reviewed the clinical data of 383 CHD children in Tibet and 73 children at lower altitudes. The percentage of isolated ventricular septal defect decreased from 54.8 to 3.1%, and the percentage of isolated patent ductus arteriosus increased from 8.2 to 68.4% with elevation. Children living below 4200 m (10.4–13.7%) had a larger proportion of complex CHD than those above this altitude (2.0–3.1%). Of the 20 Tibetan children with complex CHD, 14 (70.0%) lived below 4200 m.
A wide variation in CHD prevalence and composition existed in Tibetan children among different altitudes.
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a primary liver malignancy that mainly occurs in patients with chronic liver disease and cirrhosis. Risk factors for HCC include hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. However, the specific role of HBV infection in HCC development is not yet completely understood. In order to reveal the effects of HBV on HCC, we compare the genes of HCC patients infected with HBV with those who are not infected.
We encoded the genes of these two types of HCC in databases using enrichment scores of Gene Ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway terms. A random forest algorithm was employed in order to distinguish these two types in the classifier, and a series of feature selection approaches was used in order to select their optimal features. Novel HBV-associated and -non-associated HCC genes were predicted, respectively, based on their optimal features in the classifier. A shortest-path algorithm was also employed in order to find all of the shortest-paths genes connecting the known related genes.
A total of 54 different features between HBV-associated and -non-associated HCC genes were identified. In total, 1236 and 881 novel related genes were predicted for HBV-associated and -non-associated HCC, respectively. By integrating the predicted genes and shortest path genes in their gene interaction network, we identified 679 common genes involved in the two types of HCC.
We identified the significantly different genetic features between two types of HCC. We also predicted related genes for the two types based on their specific features. Finally, we determined the common genes and features that were involved in both of these two types of HCC.
Introduction: The mortality of Parkinson’s disease (PD) and its associated risk factors among clinically definite PD patients in China has been rarely investigated. Our study aimed to identify the mortality rates and predictors of death in PD patients in China. Methods: 157 consecutive, clinically definite PD patients from the urban area of Shanghai were recruited from a central hospital based movement disorder clinic in 2006. All patients were regularly followed up at the clinic until December 31, 2011, or death. Mortality and associations with baseline demographics, health and medical factors were then determined within the cohort. Results: After 5 years, 11(7%) patients had died. The standardised mortality ratio was 0.62 (95% CI 0.32 to 1.07, P=0.104). The main causes of death were pneumonia (54.5%, 6/11) and digestive disorders (18.2%, 2/11), respectively. Age at onset, independent living, the mini mental state examination score, the Parkinson’s disease sleep scale score and the Epworth sleepiness scale score at baseline were statistically significantly different between the survival group and the deceased group (P<0.05). Across all participants, risk factors for death included low mini mental state examination score, and high Epworth sleepiness scale score according to a binary variable logistic regression analysis. Conclusions: This study confirms the similar survival of patients with PD to the control population up to a follow-up of 5 years. Interventions tailored to potential risk factors associated with death may offer further benefits.
Unawareness of deficits is common and is associated with poor outcomes in Alzheimer's disease (AD); however, little is known about correlated neurobiochemical changes.
Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy was used to examine neurobiochemical correlates of unawareness of deficits as assessed by the Dementia Deficit Scale in 36 patients with AD. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy spectra were acquired from the anterior cingulate area and right orbitofrontal area. Concentrations of N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA), total creatine, and other neurometabolites were calculated.
Nineteen (52.8%) participants had relative unawareness of deficits. This condition was negatively correlated with NAA/creatine in the anterior cingulate area (β = −0.36, p = 0.025) and positively correlated with NAA/creatine in the right orbitofrontal area (β = 0.41, p = 0.009) after controlling for dementia severity.
These findings suggest unawareness of deficits in AD was associated with the altered neurochemical metabolites in the anterior cingulate area and right orbitofrontal area. However, the two areas might have opposite neuronal functions in unawareness of deficits.
A thalattosaur taxon, Concavispina biseridens, was recently named and briefly described. It is described here in detail and compared with other thalattosaurs, especially Xinpusaurus. Concavispina is characterized by a long skull, measuring approximately half the length of presacral portion of the vertebral column, two rows of blunt teeth on the anterior part of the maxilla, and neural spines that have convex anterior or posterior margins and V-shaped notches in their dorsal margins. Concavispina differs from all thalattosaurs except Xinpusaurus in that the anterior end of the maxilla is curved dorsally, less than five cervical vertebrae are present, and the proximal end of the humerus is wider than the distal end. Phylogenetic analysis of 40 characters suggests that Miodentosaurus occupies a basal position within Askeptosauridea, Paralonectes is the basalmost member of Thalattosauridea, Concavispina may form a clade with Xinpusaurus, and Chinese thalattosaurs do not have a close relationship with eastern Pacific forms as suggested by previous studies. Concavispina may have been similar to Xinpusaurus in overall locomotor style, but probably had a poorer swimming ability. Concavispina likely differed from Xinpusaurus in diet, for example by depending on softer food.
We report high-precision measurements of the Nusselt number as a function of the Rayleigh number in water-filled rectangular Rayleigh–Bénard convection cells. The horizontal length and width of the cells are 50.0 and 15.0 cm, respectively, and the heights , 25.0, 12.5, 6.9, 3.5, and 2.4 cm, corresponding to the aspect ratios , , , , , and . The measurements were carried out over the Rayleigh number range and the Prandtl number range . Our results show that for rectangular geometry turbulent heat transport is independent of the cells’ aspect ratios and hence is insensitive to the nature and structures of the large-scale mean flows of the system. This is slightly different from the observations in cylindrical cells where is found to be in general a decreasing function of , at least for and larger. Such a difference is probably a manifestation of the finite plate conductivity effect. Corrections for the influence of the finite conductivity of the top and bottom plates are made to obtain the estimates of for plates with perfect conductivity. The local scaling exponents of are calculated and found to increase from 0.243 at to 0.327 at .
Penaeus monodon (mean initial wet weight 1·19 (se 0·01) g) were fed seven diets in triplicate: a control diet (D1) without carotenoids; three diets formulated to supply 0·1 % astaxanthin alone (D2), 0·2 % astaxanthin alone (D3), and a combination of 0·1 % astaxanthin and 1 % cholesterol (D4); three diets with 0·07 % canthaxanthin alone (D5), 0·13 % canthaxanthin alone (D6), and a combination of 0·07 % canthaxanthin and 1 % cholesterol (D7). Weight gain (WG, %), specific growth rate (SGR, %/d) and survival were chosen as parameters of shrimp growth performance. Total antioxidant status (TAS), superoxide dismutase (SOD), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were chosen as indices of shrimp plasma antioxidant capacity. Meanwhile, digestibility, retention efficiency and tissue carotenoids were also investigated to determine the additive effect of cholesterol on the efficiency of astaxanthin and canthaxanthin. After 74 d rearing, WG and SGR of shrimp fed D2–D4 and D7 were higher than those of shrimp fed D1 (P < 0·05). Shrimp fed D4 had the highest survival. The apparent digestibility coefficients (ADC) of astaxanthin in D2–D4 were higher than those of canthaxanthin in D5–D7 (P < 0·05). Although ADC of astaxanthin were quite high (>98 %) in D2–D4 and no differences were found among them (P>0·05), the carotenoid retention efficiencies in the whole body, muscle and shell (D2–D3 treatments) were considerably low; however, cholesterol supplementation significantly improved the carotenoid retention efficiencies in the whole body, muscle and shell (D4 treatment). Accordingly, the addition of cholesterol also significantly enhanced the carotenoid contents of tissues. Shrimp fed supplemented carotenoid diets (D2–D7) had higher TAS and lower SOD, ALT and AST than shrimp fed D1 (P < 0·05). A low dissolved oxygen stress test was conducted for 7 d after the rearing trial and shrimp survival was also compared among the treatments. The survival of shrimp fed the diets supplemented with astaxanthin or canthaxanthin was higher than that of shrimp fed D1 during the stress test (P < 0·05). In conclusion, all data suggested that astaxanthin was better than canthaxanthin as the dietary carotenoid source in the commercial diet of P. monodon, and the supplement of cholesterol could positively enhance the efficiency of astaxanthin and canthaxanthin.
There are close links among hyperglycaemia, oxidative stress and diabetic complications. Glutamine (GLN) is an amino acid with immunomodulatory properties. The present study investigated the effect of dietary GLN on oxidative stress-relative gene expressions and tissue oxidative damage in diabetes. There were one normal control (NC) and two diabetic groups in the present study. Diabetes was induced by an intraperitoneal injection of nicotinamide followed by streptozotocin (STZ). Rats in the NC group were fed a regular chow diet. In the two diabetic groups, one group (diabetes mellitus, DM) was fed a common semi-purified diet while the other group received a diet in which part of the casein was replaced by GLN (DM-GLN). GLN provided 25 % of total amino acid N. The experimental groups were fed the respective diets for 8 weeks, and then the rats were killed for further analysis. The results showed that blood thioredoxin-interacting protein (Txnip) mRNA expression in the diabetic groups was higher than that in the NC group. Compared with the DM group, the DM-GLN group had lower glutamine fructose-6-phosphate transaminase 1, a receptor of advanced glycation end products, and Txnip gene expressions in blood mononuclear cells. The total antioxidant capacity was lower and antioxidant enzyme activities were altered by the diabetic condition. GLN supplementation increased antioxidant capacity and normalised antioxidant enzyme activities. Also, the renal nitrotyrosine level and Txnip mRNA expression were lower when GLN was administered. These results suggest that dietary GLN supplementation decreases oxidative stress-related gene expression, increases the antioxidant potential and may consequently attenuate renal oxidative damage in rats with STZ-induced diabetes.
We report an experimental investigation of the longitudinal space–time cross-correlation function of the velocity field, , in a cylindrical turbulent Rayleigh–Bénard convection cell using the particle image velocimetry (PIV) technique. We show that while Taylor’s frozen-flow hypothesis does not hold in turbulent thermal convection, the recent elliptic model advanced for turbulent shear flows (He & Zhang, Phys. Rev. E, vol. 73, 055303) is valid for the present velocity field for all over the cell, i.e. the isocorrelation contours of the measured have an elliptical curve shape and hence can be related to via with and being two characteristic velocities. We further show that the fitted is proportional to the mean velocity of the flow, but the values of are larger than the theoretical predictions. Specifically, we focus on two representative regions in the cell: the region near the cell sidewall and the cell’s central region. It is found that and are approximately the same near the sidewall, while at the cell centre.
The two major lineages of extant archosaurs, crocodylians and avians, diverged in the Triassic, but the details and timing of this event are incompletely understood. Fragmentary and phylogenetically uninformative specimens, in addition to poor temporal constraints on rock units from the Early and Middle Triassic, typify obstacles in identifying early archosaurs. This paper re-describes the partial skeleton of the only known specimen of Xilousuchus sapingensis Wu, 1981 from the Early Triassic Heshanggou Formation in north-central China. Originally assigned to the non-archosaurian archosauriform clade Proterosuchidae, an extensive phylogenetic analysis posits X. sapingensis as a crown-group archosaur within Suchia, thus making this taxon the unequivocally oldest known member of Archosauria. The age and phylogenetic position of X. sapingensis indicate that many archosaurs, including all major clades of non-archosaurian archosauriforms, the avianline, ornithosuchids, aetosaurs and paracrocodylomorph lineages, must have diverged by the end of the Early Triassic. X. sapingensis is part of a possible clade of sail-backed poposauroids that were common components of archosaur assemblages during the Early to Middle Triassic.