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Rodents and shrews are major reservoirs of various pathogens that are related to zoonotic infectious diseases. The purpose of this study was to investigate co-infections of zoonotic pathogens in rodents and shrews trapped in four provinces of China. We sampled different rodent and shrew communities within and around human settlements in four provinces of China and characterised several important zoonotic viral, bacterial, and parasitic pathogens by PCR methods and phylogenetic analysis. A total of 864 rodents and shrews belonging to 24 and 13 species from RODENTIA and EULIPOTYPHLA orders were captured, respectively. For viral pathogens, two species of hantavirus (Hantaan orthohantavirus and Caobang orthohantavirus) were identified in 3.47% of rodents and shrews. The overall prevalence of Bartonella spp., Anaplasmataceae, Babesia spp., Leptospira spp., Spotted fever group Rickettsiae, Borrelia spp., and Coxiella burnetii were 31.25%, 8.91%, 4.17%, 3.94%, 3.59%, 3.47%, and 0.58%, respectively. Furthermore, the highest co-infection status of three pathogens was observed among Bartonella spp., Leptospira spp., and Anaplasmataceae with a co-infection rate of 0.46%. Our results suggested that species distribution and co-infections of zoonotic pathogens were prevalent in rodents and shrews, highlighting the necessity of active surveillance for zoonotic pathogens in wild mammals in wider regions.
Objectives: Central-line–associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI) has been the leading cause of healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) in the intensive care unit (ICU) setting. Previous studies have shown that a care bundle is effective in reducing CLABSI rates; however, the data on long-term sustainability and cost savings of bundled care are limited. Methods: From January 2011 to December 2020, a prospective surveillance was performed to monitor CLABSI at a university hospital in northern Taiwan. To reduce the CLABSI rate, a hospital-wide bundled care program for CLABSI prevention was implemented in 2013. We evaluated the long-term effect of the care bundle on CLABSI incidence and length of stay in the ICU. Results: During the study period, the overall CLABSI incidence decreased from 8.22 per 1,000 catheter days before the care bundle was implemented to 6.33 per 1,000 catheter days in 2020 (P for trend <.01). The most common pathogens causing CLABSI were gut organisms (1,420 of 2,363, 60.1%), followed by environmental organisms (734 of 2,363, 31.1%) and skin organisms (177 of 2,363, 7.5%). The decreasing trend was statistically significant in the incidence of CLABSI caused by skin organisms (P for trend < .01), but not in the incidence of CLABSI caused by environmental organisms (P for trend = .86) or gut organisms (P for trend = .06). In the multivariable analysis, implementation of this care bundle was independently associated with a decrease in the CLABSI rate (RR, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.66–0.88). Compared with patients without CLABSI, patients with CLABSI had a longer average ICU length of stay (27 vs 17 days). Conclusions: A sustainable reduction in the incidence of CLABSI caused by common commensals could be achieved through a cost-saving bundled care program.
Identifying risk factors and mortality of individuals with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) could have important implications for the clinical management of AD.
This pilot study aimed to examine the overall mortality of AD patients over a 10-year surveillance period in Shanghai, China. This study is an extension of our previous investigation on mortality of neurodegenerative diseases.
One hundred and thirty-two AD patients recruited from the memory clinics of two hospitals in Shanghai in 2007 were followed up until December 31, 2017 or death, representing a follow-up period of up to 10 years. Overall standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) were calculated, and predictors for survival at recruitment were estimated.
Sixty-seven patients had died by December 31, 2017, and the SMR at 10 years of follow-up was 1.225 (95% confidence interval 0.944–1.563). Employing Cox’s proportional hazard modeling, lower Mini-Mental State Examination score, and comorbid diabetes predicted poor survival in this cohort.
This pilot study suggests a similar survival trend of patients with AD compared to the general population in Shanghai urban region. Poor cognitive status and comorbid diabetes had a negative impact on the survival of AD patients.
Recent studies have suggested an association between vitamin D and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD); however, some results are subject to debate. This study was carried out to evaluate the correlation between NAFLD and vitamin D in men and women in East China. The data were obtained from a cross-sectional study that focused on the health and metabolic status of adults in sixteen areas of East China. According to ultrasonic assessments, the patients were divided into normal and NAFLD groups. Demographic characteristics and biochemical measurements were obtained. Binary logistic regression analysis was used to explore the association. In total, 5066 subjects were enrolled, and 2193 (43·3 %) were diagnosed with NAFLD; 84·56 % of the subjects showed vitamin D deficiency. Subjects with high vitamin D levels had a lower prevalence of NAFLD, particularly male subjects. Within the highest quartile of vitamin D levels, the prevalence of NAFLD was 40·8 %, whereas the lowest quartile of vitamin D levels showed a prevalence of 62·2 %, which was unchanged in women across the vitamin D levels. Binary logistic analysis showed that decreased vitamin D levels were associated with an increased risk of NAFLD (OR 1·54; 95 % CI 1·26, 1·88). This study suggests that vitamin D levels are significantly associated with NAFLD and that vitamin D acts as an independent factor for NAFLD prevalence, particularly in males in East China. Vitamin D interventional treatment might be a new target for controlling NAFLD; elucidating the mechanism requires further research.
Introduction: The mortality of Parkinson’s disease (PD) and its associated risk factors among clinically definite PD patients in China has been rarely investigated. Our study aimed to identify the mortality rates and predictors of death in PD patients in China. Methods: 157 consecutive, clinically definite PD patients from the urban area of Shanghai were recruited from a central hospital based movement disorder clinic in 2006. All patients were regularly followed up at the clinic until December 31, 2011, or death. Mortality and associations with baseline demographics, health and medical factors were then determined within the cohort. Results: After 5 years, 11(7%) patients had died. The standardised mortality ratio was 0.62 (95% CI 0.32 to 1.07, P=0.104). The main causes of death were pneumonia (54.5%, 6/11) and digestive disorders (18.2%, 2/11), respectively. Age at onset, independent living, the mini mental state examination score, the Parkinson’s disease sleep scale score and the Epworth sleepiness scale score at baseline were statistically significantly different between the survival group and the deceased group (P<0.05). Across all participants, risk factors for death included low mini mental state examination score, and high Epworth sleepiness scale score according to a binary variable logistic regression analysis. Conclusions: This study confirms the similar survival of patients with PD to the control population up to a follow-up of 5 years. Interventions tailored to potential risk factors associated with death may offer further benefits.
Allocetraria yunnanensis R. F. Wang, X. L. Wei & J. C. Wei is described as a new species from the Yunnan Province of China, and is characterized by having a shiny upper surface, strongly wrinkled lower surface, and marginal pseudocyphellae present on the lower side in the form of a white continuous line or spot. The phylogenetic analysis based on nrDNA ITS sequences suggests that the new species is related to A. sinensis X. Q. Gao.
The safety and effectiveness of intra-arterial thrombolysis (IAT) in comparison to intravenous thrombolysis (IVT) for the treatment of ischemic stroke is uncertain. Our study aims to assess and compare IAT to IVT for clinically relevant outcomes in patients with occlusion of the anterior cerebral circulation.
Patients with acute ischemic stroke were enrolled for either treatment; those whose symptoms occurred within 4.5 hrs after stroke were treated with IVT, whereas those who presented <4.5 hrs but had contraindications to IVT or presented between 4.5 and 6 hrs were treated with IAT. Evaluated endpoints included: disability at 90 days as measured by the modified Rankin Scale (mRS), incidence of mortality, and incidence of symptomatic intracranial haemorrhage.
78 patients with anterior cerebral circulation occlusion were included in the study (55 in IVT, 23 in IAT). After 90 days, 82.6% patients treated with IAT reached independence in comparison to 56.4% in the IVT group (P=0.028, RR=2.66, 95% CI: 1.10-7.04). The incidence of all intracranial haemorrhages in the IAT and IVT groups respectively were 30.4% and 12.7% (P=0.103, RR=2.391, 95% CI: 0.946-6.047); symptomatic intracranial haemorrhage occurred in 8.7% and 9.1% of patients (P=1.00, RR= 0.957, 95% CI: 0.200-4.579), and mortality in 8.7% and 16.4% (P=0.492, RR=1.882, 95% CI: 0.440-8.045).
Results suggest that IAT is more effective than IVT in allowing patients to achieve independence. While inconclusive, the safety of IAT within 6 hrs is comparable to IVT within 4.5 hrs.
In this paper, we report the characterization of vertically aligned ZnO nanowire (NW) arrays synthesized by metal-catalyzed chemical vapor deposition. The growth mechanism of ZnO NWs may be related to vapor-solid-nucleation. Morphological, structural, optical and field emission characteristics can be modified by varying the growth time. For growth time reaches 120 min, the length and the diameter of ZnO NWs are 1.5 μm and 350 nm, and they also show preferential growth orientation along the c-axis. Moreover, strong alignment and uniform distribution of ZnO NWs can effectively enhance the antireflection to reach the average reflectance of 5.7% in the visible region as well. Field emission measurement indicated that the growth time play an important role in density- and morphology-controlled ZnO NWs, and thus ZnO NWs are expected to be used in versatile optoelectronic devices.
Members of the double-stranded RNA- (dsRNA) specific
adenosine deaminase gene family convert adenosine residues
into inosines in dsRNA and are involved in A-to-I RNA editing
of transcripts of glutamate receptor (GluR) subunits and
serotonin receptor subtype 2C (5-HT2CR). We
have isolated hADAR3, the third member of this class of
human enzyme and investigated its editing site selectivity
using in vitro RNA editing assay systems. As originally
reported for rat ADAR3 or RED2, purified ADAR3 proteins
could not edit GluR-B RNA at the “Q/R” site,
the “R/G” site, and the intronic “hot
spot” site. In addition, ADAR3 did not edit any of
five sites discovered recently within the intracellular
loop II region of 5-HT2CR RNAs, confirming its
total lack of editing activity for currently known substrate
RNAs. Filter-binding analyses revealed that ADAR3 is capable
of binding not only to dsRNA but also to single-stranded
RNA (ssRNA). Deletion mutagenesis identified a region rich
in arginine residues located in the N-terminus that is
responsible for binding of ADAR3 to ssRNA. The presence
of this ssRNA-binding domain as well as its expression
in restricted brain regions and postmitotic neurons make
ADAR3 distinct from the other two ADAR gene family members,
editing competent ADAR1 and ADAR2. ADAR3 inhibited in vitro
the activities of RNA editing enzymes of the ADAR gene
family, raising the possibility of a regulatory role in
A novel defect passivation process of polycrystalline silicon thin-film transistors (poly-Si TFT's) utilizing nitrous oxide (N2O) plasma was investigated. In terms of the gas flow rate, chamber pressure, and plasma exposure time, the optimum plasma condition has been found to significantly improve the electrical characteristics of poly-Si TFTs. The performance is even better than those passivated with conventional hydrogen plasma. It is believed that the nitrogen radicals from the N2O gas as well as the hydrogen ones from the residual H2O both can diffuse into the gate-oxide/poly-Si interface and the channel poly-Si layer to passivate the defect-states. Furthermore, the gate-oxide leakage current significantly decreases and the oxide breakdown voltage slightly increases after applying N2O-plasma treatment. This novel process is promising for the applications of TFT/liquid crystal displays and TET/static random access memories.
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