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We aim to examine the relation of several folate forms (5-methyltetrahydrofolate [5-mTHF], unmetabolized folic acid [UMFA], and MeFox) with kidney function and albuminuria, which remained uncertain. The cross-sectional study was conducted in 18,757 participants from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2011–2018. The kidney outcomes were reduced estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) (<60 mL/min/1.73 m2), microalbuminuria (albumin-to-creatinine ratio of 30-299 mg/g), and macroalbuminuria (albumin-to-creatinine ratio ≥ 300 mg/g).Overall, there were significant inverse associations between serum 5-mTHF and kidney outcomes with significant lower prevalence of reduced eGFR (OR, 0.71; 95%CI: 0.57-0.87) and macroalbuminuria (OR, 0.65; 95%CI: 0.46-0.91) in participants in quartile 3-4 (vs. quartile 1-2; ≥34.0 vs. <34.0nmol/L; both P for trend across quartiles <0.05). In contrast, there were significant positive relationship between serum UMFA and kidney outcomes with significant higher prevalence of reduced eGFR in participants in quartile 2-4 (vs. quartile 1; ≥0.5 vs. <0.5nmol/L; OR, 2.12; 95%CI: 1.45-3.12; P for trend <0.001) and higher prevalence of macroalbuminuria in participants in quartile 4 (vs. quartile 1-3; ≥ 1.0 vs. <1.0 nmol/L; OR, 1.46; 95%CI: 1.06-2.01; P for trend <0.001). However, there was no significant associations of 5-mTHF and UMFA with microalbuminuria. In addition, there were significant positive relationships of serum MeFox with reduced eGFR, microalbuminuria and macroalbuminuria (all P for trend <0.01). In conclusion, higher 5-mTHF level, along with lower UMFA and MeFox level, were associated with lower prevalence of kidney outcomes, which may help counsel future clinical trials and nutritional guidelines regarding the folate supplement.
Late Mesozoic igneous rocks are important for deciphering the Mesozoic tectonic setting of NE China. In this paper, we present whole-rock geochemical data, zircon U–Pb ages and Lu–Hf isotope data for Early Cretaceous volcanic rocks from the Tulihe area of the northern Great Xing’an Range (GXR), with the aim of evaluating the petrogenesis and genetic relationships of these rocks, inferring crust–mantle interactions and better constraining extension-related geodynamic processes in the GXR. Zircon U–Pb ages indicate that the rhyolites and trachytic volcanic rocks formed during late Early Cretaceous time (c. 130–126 Ma). Geochemically, the highly fractionated I-type rhyolites exhibit high-K calc-alkaline, metaluminous to weakly peraluminous characteristics. They are enriched in light rare earth elements (LREEs) and large-ion lithophile elements (LILEs) but depleted in high-field-strength elements (HFSEs), with their magmatic zircons ϵHf(t) values ranging from +4.1 to +9.0. These features suggest that the rhyolites were derived from the partial melting of a dominantly juvenile, K-rich basaltic lower crust. The trachytic volcanic rocks are high-K calc-alkaline series and exhibit metaluminous characteristics. They have a wide range of zircon ϵHf(t) values (−17.8 to +12.9), indicating that these trachytic volcanic rocks originated from a dominantly lithospheric-mantle source with the involvement of asthenospheric mantle materials, and subsequently underwent extensive assimilation and fractional crystallization processes. Combining our results and the spatiotemporal migration of the late Early Cretaceous magmatic events, we propose that intense Early Cretaceous crust–mantle interaction took place within the northern GXR, and possibly the whole of NE China, and that it was related to the upwelling of asthenospheric mantle induced by rollback of the Palaeo-Pacific flat-subducting slab.
We aimed to examine whether baseline neutrophil counts affected the risk of new-onset proteinuria in hypertensive patients, and, if so, whether folic acid treatment is particularly effective in proteinuria prevention in such a setting. A total of 8208 eligible participants without proteinuria at baseline were analysed from the renal substudy of the China Stroke Primary Prevention Trial. Participants were randomised to receive a double-blind daily treatment of 10 mg of enalapril and 0·8 mg of folic acid (n 4101) or 10 mg of enalapril only (n 4107). The primary outcome was new-onset proteinuria, defined as a urine dipstick reading of ≥1+ at the exit visit. The mean age of the participants was 59·5 (sd, 7·4) years, 3088 (37·6 %) of the participants were male. The median treatment duration was 4·4 years. In the enalapril-only group, a significantly higher risk of new-onset proteinuria was found among participants with higher neutrophil counts (quintile 5; ≥4·8 × 109/l, OR 1·44; 95 % CI 1·00, 2·06), compared with those in quintiles 1–4. For those with enalapril and folic acid treatment, compared with the enalapril-only group, the new-onset proteinuria risk was reduced from 5·2 to 2·8 % (OR 0·49; 95 % CI 0·29, 0·82) among participants with higher neutrophil counts (≥4·8 × 109/l), whereas there was no significant effect among those with neutrophil counts <4·8 × 109/l. In summary, among hypertensive patients, those with higher neutrophil counts had increased risk of new-onset proteinuria, and this risk was reduced by 51 % with folic acid treatment.
To aid emergency response, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) researchers monitor unplanned school closures (USCs) by conducting online systematic searches (OSS) to identify relevant publicly available reports. We examined the added utility of analyzing Twitter data to improve USC monitoring.
Georgia public school data were obtained from the National Center for Education Statistics. We identified school and district Twitter accounts with 1 or more tweets ever posted (“active”), and their USC-related tweets in the 2015-16 and 2016-17 school years. CDC researchers provided OSS-identified USC reports. Descriptive statistics, univariate, and multivariable logistic regression were computed.
A majority (1,864/2,299) of Georgia public schools had, or were in a district with, active Twitter accounts in 2017. Among these schools, 638 were identified with USCs in 2015-16 (Twitter only, 222; OSS only, 2015; both, 201) and 981 in 2016-17 (Twitter only, 178; OSS only, 107; both, 696). The marginal benefit of adding Twitter as a data source was an increase in the number of schools identified with USCs by 53% (222/416) in 2015-16 and 22% (178/803) in 2016-17.
Policy-makers may wish to consider the potential value of incorporating Twitter into existing USC monitoring systems.
The addition of clay minerals in drilling fluids modifies the dispersion's viscosity. In this article, scientific advances related to the use of clays and clay minerals (bentonite, palygorskite, sepiolite and mixtures of clay minerals) in drilling fluids are summarized and discussed based on their specific structure, rheological properties, applications, prevailing challenges and future directions. The rheological properties of drilling fluids are affected by the temperature, type of electrolytes, pH and concentration of clay minerals. Bentonites are smectite-rich clays often used in drilling fluids, and their composition varies from deposit to deposit. Such variations significantly affect the behaviour of bentonite-based drilling fluids. Palygorskite is suitable for use in oil-based drilling fluids, but the gelation and gel structures of palygorskite-added drilling fluids have not received much attention. Sepiolite is often used in water-based drilling fluids as a rheological additive. Dispersions containing mixtures of clays including bentonite, kaolin, palygorskite and sepiolite are used in drilling fluids requiring specific features such as high-density drilling fluids or those used in impermeable slurry walls. In these cases, the surface chemistry–microstructure–property relationships of mixed-clay dispersions need to be understood fully. The prevailing challenges and future directions in drilling fluids research include safety, ‘green’ processes and high-temperature and high-pressure-resistant clay minerals.
In this study, we sought to extend the research on self-determination, future orientation, and personal identity construction by integrating the theories on self-determination and future orientation to provide a conceptual framework for understanding the relations between personal identity and the following individual characteristics: Hope, optimism, awareness of self, and perceived choice. 191 university students in China responded surveys in hardcopies on an individual basis. Our SEM results revealed that proximal future orientation influenced the mechanisms through which distal psychological traits affected identity construction. Specifically, hope mediated the effects of self-awareness on the participants’ personal identity ratings (b = .45, p < .05). Although optimism was related to both awareness of self and perceived choice, it was not significantly related to personal identity. This study suggested an extended framework through which we could understand how the interaction between future orientation and self-determination can predict personal identity. The findings have significant implications for interventions in educational settings.
Introduction: The mortality of Parkinson’s disease (PD) and its associated risk factors among clinically definite PD patients in China has been rarely investigated. Our study aimed to identify the mortality rates and predictors of death in PD patients in China. Methods: 157 consecutive, clinically definite PD patients from the urban area of Shanghai were recruited from a central hospital based movement disorder clinic in 2006. All patients were regularly followed up at the clinic until December 31, 2011, or death. Mortality and associations with baseline demographics, health and medical factors were then determined within the cohort. Results: After 5 years, 11(7%) patients had died. The standardised mortality ratio was 0.62 (95% CI 0.32 to 1.07, P=0.104). The main causes of death were pneumonia (54.5%, 6/11) and digestive disorders (18.2%, 2/11), respectively. Age at onset, independent living, the mini mental state examination score, the Parkinson’s disease sleep scale score and the Epworth sleepiness scale score at baseline were statistically significantly different between the survival group and the deceased group (P<0.05). Across all participants, risk factors for death included low mini mental state examination score, and high Epworth sleepiness scale score according to a binary variable logistic regression analysis. Conclusions: This study confirms the similar survival of patients with PD to the control population up to a follow-up of 5 years. Interventions tailored to potential risk factors associated with death may offer further benefits.
Large-scale blooms of dinoflagellates, such as Prorocentrum donghaiense and Karenia mikimotoi, have occurred frequently in the East China Sea (ECS) in recent decades. However, little is known about their effects on the entire life history of copepods. Under laboratory conditions, we investigated the effects of these two common dinoflagellates on the survival of Calanus sinicus individuals at different stages and on reproduction of this copepod. Compared with the control treatment (Skeletonema costatum), the presence of P. donghaiense and K. mikimotoi decreased the survival rates of adults and nauplii during the 16 days of the experiment. Survival of nauplii decreased to 49% and 48%, respectively, relative to the nearly 80% survival of adults. Among the six stages of nauplii, individuals at NII and NIII were more susceptible to P. donghaiense and K. mikimotoi. Lower egg production rates were also observed when copepods were exposed to P. donghaiense and K. mikimotoi, and hatching success decreased only with exposure to P. donghaiense. These results suggest that blooms of the two common dinoflagellates may have detrimental effects on the survival of nauplii and the reproduction of C. sinicus, which may pose a major threat to the recruitment of C. sinicus.
Cloud Computing has become a well-known primitive nowadays; many researchers and companies are embracing this fascinating technology with feverish haste. In the meantime, security and privacy challenges are brought forward while the number of cloud storage user increases expeditiously. In this work, we conduct an in-depth survey on recent research activities of cloud storage security in association with cloud computing. After an overview of the cloud storage system and its security problem, we focus on the key security requirement triad, i.e., data integrity, data confidentiality, and availability. For each of the three security objectives, we discuss the new unique challenges faced by the cloud storage services, summarize key issues discussed in the current literature, examine, and compare the existing and emerging approaches proposed to meet those new challenges, and point out possible extensions and futuristic research opportunities. The goal of our paper is to provide a state-of-the-art knowledge to new researchers who would like to join this exciting new field.
In vitro fertilized (IVF) human embryos have a high incidence of developmental arrest before the blastocyst stage, therefore characterization of the molecular mechanisms that regulate embryo development is urgently required. Post-transcriptional control by microRNAs (miRNAs) is one of the most investigated RNA control mechanisms, and is hypothesized to be involved actively in developmental arrest in preimplantation embryos. In this study, we extracted total RNA from mouse 2-cell and 4-cell embryos. Using a miRNA microarray, 192 miRNAs were found to be differentially expressed in 4-cell embryos and 2-cell embryos; 122 miRNAs were upregulated and 70 were downregulated in 4-cell embryos. The microarray results were confirmed by real-time quantitative RT-PCR for six miRNAs (mmu-miR-467h, mmu-miR-466d-3p, mmu-miR-292–5p, mmu-miR-154, mmu-miR-2145, and mmu-miR-706). Cdca4 and Tcf12 were identified as miR-154 target genes by target prediction analysis. This study provides a developmental map for a large number of miRNAs in 2-cell and 4-cell embryos. The function of these miRNAs and the mechanisms by which they modulate embryonic developmental arrest require further study. The results of this study have potential applications in the field of reproductive medicine.
We report high-precision measurements of the Nusselt number as a function of the Rayleigh number in water-filled rectangular Rayleigh–Bénard convection cells. The horizontal length and width of the cells are 50.0 and 15.0 cm, respectively, and the heights , 25.0, 12.5, 6.9, 3.5, and 2.4 cm, corresponding to the aspect ratios , , , , , and . The measurements were carried out over the Rayleigh number range and the Prandtl number range . Our results show that for rectangular geometry turbulent heat transport is independent of the cells’ aspect ratios and hence is insensitive to the nature and structures of the large-scale mean flows of the system. This is slightly different from the observations in cylindrical cells where is found to be in general a decreasing function of , at least for and larger. Such a difference is probably a manifestation of the finite plate conductivity effect. Corrections for the influence of the finite conductivity of the top and bottom plates are made to obtain the estimates of for plates with perfect conductivity. The local scaling exponents of are calculated and found to increase from 0.243 at to 0.327 at .
Visual navigation is comparatively advanced without a Global Positioning System (GPS). It obtains environmental information via real-time processing of the data gained through visual sensors. Compared with other methods, visual navigation is a passive method that does not launch light or other radiation applications, thus making it easier to hide. The novel navigation system described in this paper uses stereo-matching combined with Inertial Measurement Units (IMU). This system applies photogrammetric theory and a matching algorithm to identify the matching points of two images of the same scene taken from different views and obtains their 3D coordinates. Integrated with the orientation information output by the IMU, the system reduces model-accumulated errors and improves the point accuracy.
A-Weyl's theorem and property (ω), as two variations of Weyl's theorem, were introduced by Rakočević. In this paper, we study a-Weyl's theorem and property (ω) for functions of bounded linear operators. A necessary and sufficient condition is given for an operator T to satisfy that f(T) obeys a-Weyl's theorem (property (ω)) for all f ∈ Hol(σ(T)). Also we investigate the small-compact perturbations of operators satisfying a-Weyl's theorem (property (ω)) in the setting of separable Hilbert spaces.
We report an experimental investigation of the longitudinal space–time cross-correlation function of the velocity field, , in a cylindrical turbulent Rayleigh–Bénard convection cell using the particle image velocimetry (PIV) technique. We show that while Taylor’s frozen-flow hypothesis does not hold in turbulent thermal convection, the recent elliptic model advanced for turbulent shear flows (He & Zhang, Phys. Rev. E, vol. 73, 055303) is valid for the present velocity field for all over the cell, i.e. the isocorrelation contours of the measured have an elliptical curve shape and hence can be related to via with and being two characteristic velocities. We further show that the fitted is proportional to the mean velocity of the flow, but the values of are larger than the theoretical predictions. Specifically, we focus on two representative regions in the cell: the region near the cell sidewall and the cell’s central region. It is found that and are approximately the same near the sidewall, while at the cell centre.
The coast of Bohai Bay, north-western Yellow Sea, is critical for waterbirds migrating along the East Asia-Australasian Flyway. Between 1994 and 2010, a total of 450 km2 of offshore area, including 218 km2 of intertidal flats (one third of the original tidal area in the bay), has been reclaimed along the bay for two industrial projects. This has caused the northward migrants to become concentrated in an ever smaller remaining area, our core study site. The spring peak numbers of two Red Knot subspecies in the East Asia-Australasian Flyway, Calidris canutus piersmai and C. c. rogersi, in this so far little affected area increased from 13% in 2007 to 62% in 2010 of the global populations; the spring peak numbers of Curlew Sandpiper C. ferruginea increased from 3% in 2007 to 23% in 2010 of the flyway population. The decline in the extent of intertidal mudflats also affected Relict Gulls Larus relictus, listed by IUCN as ‘Vulnerable’; during normal winters 56% of the global population moved from the wintering habitats that were removed in Tianjin to the relatively intact areas around Tangshan. Densities of wintering Eurasian Curlew Numenius arquata, and spring-staging Broad-billed Sandpiper Limicola falcinellus and Sanderling Calidris alba have also increased in the remaining areas. With the proposed continuation of land reclamation in Bohai Bay, we predict waterbird densities in the remaining areas to increase to a point of collapse. To evaluate the future of these fragile, shared international resources, it is vital to promote an immediate conservation action plan for the remaining coastal wetlands in this region, and continued population monitoring to determine the effects of this action.
To investigate the epidemiological characteristics of Kawasaki disease in Jilin province of China and explore its clinical features.
The medical records of children with Kawasaki disease hospitalised in the First Affiliated Hospital of Jilin University and Yanbian University between January, 2000 and December, 2008 were retrospectively analysed.
A total of 735 children with Kawasaki disease were enrolled in this study with 483 boys and 252 girls. The ratio of male to female was 1.92:1. The ages of the children at onset varied from 51 days to 12 years with a mean age of 2.8 years. The children under the age of 5 years accounted for 79.5%, but most children were 2–3 years old. Kawasaki disease occurred all the year and more frequently in both the ending of spring and the beginning of summer. Fever was the most common clinical feature and enlarged cervical lymph nodes were the smallest clinical feature. A cardiovascular lesion was found in 41.4% of these children, in whom coronary artery dilatation was the most common (26.97%). A total of 117 (18.2%) of 643 children (87.5%) receiving intravenous immunoglobulin had a non-response to gamma globulin. Of the 117 children, 66 (56.4%) had cardiovascular lesion. Kawasaki disease recurred in 19 children (2.6%).
The incidence of Kawasaki disease in Jilin province has shown an increasing tendency. The age at onset is slightly higher than that described in other reports. Kawasaki disease is the most common in both the ending of spring and the beginning of summer, and the second incidence peak occurs in autumn.
The Khanka Massif is a crustal block located along the eastern margin of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB) and bordered to the east by Late Jurassic–Early Cretaceous circum-Pacific accretionary complexes of the Eastern Asian continental margin. It consists of graphite-, sillimanite- and cordierite-bearing gneisses, carbonates and felsic paragneisses, in association with various orthogneisses. Metamorphic zircons from a sillimanite gneiss from the Hutou complex yield a weighted mean 206Pb/238U age of 490 ± 4 Ma, whereas detrital zircons from the same sample give ages from 934–610 Ma. Magmatic zircon cores in two garnet-bearing granite gneiss samples, also collected from the Hutou complex, yield weighted mean 206Pb/238U ages of 522 ± 5 Ma and 515 ± 8 Ma, whereas their metamorphic rims record 206Pb/238U ages of 510–500 Ma. These data indicate that the Hutou complex in the Khanka Massif records early Palaeozoic magmatic and metamorphic events, identical in age to those in the Mashan Complex of the Jiamusi Massif to the west. The older zircon populations in the sillimanite gneiss indicate derivation from Neoproterozoic sources, as do similar rocks in the Jiamusi Massif. These data confirm that the Khanka Massif has a close affinity with other major components of the CAOB to the west of the Dun-Mi Fault. Based on these results and previously published data, the Khanka Massif is therefore confirmed as having formed a single crustal entity with the Jiamusi (and possibly the Bureya) massif since Neoproterozoic time.