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N-enriched biochar can increase the accumulation of carbon (C), nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and biomass in rice plants. On the other hand, the biomass and C, N, and P contents of plant organs are important indicators to reflect plant C, N, and P storages. We established control, 4 t ha−1, and 8 t ha−1 N-enriched biochar treatment plots in a subtropical paddy field in China to investigate the effect of these treatments on C, N, and P storages, ecological stoichiometry in various rice plant organs, and their relationships with edaphic factors. The application of N-enriched biochar increased the biomass and storages of C, N, and P in rice roots, stems, leaves, and grains, mainly at 4 t ha−1. The application of N-enriched biochar decreased the C/N and C/P ratios of rice organs, but increased their N/P ratio. Changes in C/N were mainly due to the changes in storage, while N/P was positively correlated with N storage of stems, leaves, and grains and negatively correlated with P storage in roots. Pearson’s correlation analysis revealed that pH was negatively correlated, and soil N content was positively correlated with P storage in various organs of rice. In addition, soil P content and chlorophyll were positively correlated with N storage. In conclusion, we found that the application of N-enriched biochar improved plant N and P storage and stoichiometrical relations among rice organs.
Candidemia is a life-threatening infectious disease that has varying incidences. Previous studies revealed the differences in clinical characteristics and outcomes between non-hospital-onset (NHO) and hospital-onset (HO) candidemia. This 4-year retrospective research included adult patients with candidemia in a tertiary medical centre in Taiwan, and cases were categorised as NHO and HO candidemia. Survival analysis and risk factors associated with in-hospital mortality were performed using the Kaplan–Meier method and multivariate Cox proportional-hazards models. The analysis included 339 patients, and the overall incidence was 1.50 per 1,000 admission person-year. Of the cases, 82 (24.18%) were NHO candidemia, and 57.52% (195/339) of patients were diagnosed with at least one malignancy. C. albicans was the most commonly isolated species, accounting for 52.21%. Patients with NHO candidemia had a higher proportion of C. glabrata but a lower ratio of C. tropicalis in comparison to the HO group. The all-cause in-hospital mortality rate was 55.75%. Multivariate Cox proportional-hazards models showed that NHO candidemia was a better outcome predictor (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.44). The administration of antifungal therapy within 2 days was a protective factor. In conclusion, NHO candidemia showed distinct microbiological characteristics and a better outcome than HO candidemia.
Although ethanol treatment is widely used to activate oocytes, the underlying mechanisms are largely unclear. Roles of intracellular calcium stores and extracellular calcium in ethanol-induced activation (EIA) of oocytes remain to be verified, and whether calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) is involved in EIA is unknown. This study showed that calcium-free ageing (CFA) in vitro significantly decreased intracellular stored calcium (sCa) and CaSR expression, and impaired EIA, spindle/chromosome morphology and developmental potential of mouse oocytes. Although EIA in oocytes with full sCa after ageing with calcium does not require calcium influx, calcium influx is essential for EIA of oocytes with reduced sCa after CFA. Furthermore, the extremely low EIA rate in oocytes with CFA-downregulated CaSR expression and the fact that inhibiting CaSR significantly decreased the EIA of oocytes with a full complement of CaSR suggest that CaSR played a significant role in the EIA of ageing oocytes. In conclusion, CFA impaired EIA and the developmental potential of mouse oocytes by decreasing sCa and downregulating CaSR expression. Because mouse oocytes routinely treated for activation (18 h post hCG) are equipped with a full sCa complement and CaSR, the present results suggest that, while calcium influx is not essential, CaSR is required for the EIA of oocytes.
Trematodes of the genus Ogmocotyle are intestinal flukes that can infect a variety of definitive hosts, resulting in significant economic losses worldwide. However, there are few studies on molecular data of these trematodes. In this study, the mitochondrial (mt) genome of Ogmocotyle ailuri isolated from red panda (Ailurus fulgens) was determined and compared with those from Pronocephalata to investigate the mt genome content, genetic distance, gene rearrangements and phylogeny. The complete mt genome of O. ailuri is a typical closed circular molecule of 14 642 base pairs, comprising 12 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 transfer RNA genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes and 2 non-coding regions. All genes are transcribed in the same direction. In addition, 23 intergenic spacers and 2 locations with gene overlaps were determined. Sequence identities and sliding window analysis indicated that cox1 is the most conserved gene among 12 PCGs in O. ailuri mt genome. The sequenced mt genomes of the 48 Plagiorchiida trematodes showed 5 types of gene arrangement based on all mt genome genes, with the gene arrangement of O. ailuri being type I. Phylogenetic analysis using concatenated amino acid sequences of 12 PCGs revealed that O. ailuri was closer to Ogmocotyle sikae than to Notocotylus intestinalis. These data enhance the Ogmocotyle mt genome database and provide molecular resources for further studies of Pronocephalata taxonomy, population genetics and systematics.
Objectives: Central-line–associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI) has been the leading cause of healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) in the intensive care unit (ICU) setting. Previous studies have shown that a care bundle is effective in reducing CLABSI rates; however, the data on long-term sustainability and cost savings of bundled care are limited. Methods: From January 2011 to December 2020, a prospective surveillance was performed to monitor CLABSI at a university hospital in northern Taiwan. To reduce the CLABSI rate, a hospital-wide bundled care program for CLABSI prevention was implemented in 2013. We evaluated the long-term effect of the care bundle on CLABSI incidence and length of stay in the ICU. Results: During the study period, the overall CLABSI incidence decreased from 8.22 per 1,000 catheter days before the care bundle was implemented to 6.33 per 1,000 catheter days in 2020 (P for trend <.01). The most common pathogens causing CLABSI were gut organisms (1,420 of 2,363, 60.1%), followed by environmental organisms (734 of 2,363, 31.1%) and skin organisms (177 of 2,363, 7.5%). The decreasing trend was statistically significant in the incidence of CLABSI caused by skin organisms (P for trend < .01), but not in the incidence of CLABSI caused by environmental organisms (P for trend = .86) or gut organisms (P for trend = .06). In the multivariable analysis, implementation of this care bundle was independently associated with a decrease in the CLABSI rate (RR, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.66–0.88). Compared with patients without CLABSI, patients with CLABSI had a longer average ICU length of stay (27 vs 17 days). Conclusions: A sustainable reduction in the incidence of CLABSI caused by common commensals could be achieved through a cost-saving bundled care program.
One of the most common harmful mites in edible fungi is Histiostoma feroniarum Dufour (Acaridida: Histiostomatidae), a fungivorous astigmatid mite that feeds on hyphae and fruiting bodies, thereby transmitting pathogens. This study examined the effects of seven constant temperatures and 10 types of mushrooms on the growth and development of H. feroniarum, as well as its host preference. Developmental time for the total immature stages was significantly affected by the type of mushroom species, ranging from 4.3 ± 0.4 days (reared on Pleurotus eryngii var. tuoliensis Mou at 28°C) to 17.1 ± 2.3 days (reared on Auricularia polytricha Sacc. at 19°C). The temperature was a major factor in the formation of facultative heteromorphic deutonymphs (hypopi). The mite entered the hypopus stage when the temperature dropped to 16°C or rose above 31°C. The growth and development of this mite were significantly influenced by the type of species and variety of mushrooms. Moreover, the fungivorous astigmatid mite preferred to feed on the ‘Wuxiang No. 1’ strain of Lentinula edodes (Berk.) Pegler and the ‘Gaowenxiu’ strain of P. pulmonarius (Fr.) Quél., with a shorter development period compared with that of feeding on other strains. These results therefore quantify the effect of host type and temperature on fungivorous astigmatid mite growth and development rates, and provide a reference for applying mushroom cultivar resistance to biological pest control.
We present a high-energy, hundred-picosecond (ps) pulsed mid-ultraviolet solid-state laser at 266 nm by a direct second harmonic generation (SHG) in a barium borate (BaB2O4, BBO) nonlinear crystal. The green pump source is a 710 mJ, 330 ps pulsed laser at a wavelength of 532 nm with a repetition rate of 1 Hz. Under a green pump energy of 710 mJ, a maximum output energy of 253.3 mJ at 266 nm is achieved with 250 ps pulse duration resulting in a peak power of more than 1 GW, corresponding to an SHG conversion efficiency of 35.7% from 532 to 266 nm. The experimental data were well consistent with the theoretical prediction. To the best of our knowledge, this laser exhibits both the highest output energy and highest peak power ever achieved in a hundred-ps/ps regime at 266 nm for BBO-SHG.
Shame leads to devaluation of the social self, and thus to a desire to improve self-esteem. Money, which is related to the notion of one’s ability, may help people demonstrate competence and gain self-esteem and respect from others. Based on the perspectives of feelings-as-information and threatened ego, we tested the hypothesis that a sense of shame heightens the desire for money, prompting self-interested behaviors as reflected by monetary donations and social value orientation. The results showed that subjects in the shame condition donated less money (Experiment 1) and exhibited more self-interested choices in the modified decomposed game (Experiment 2). The desire for money as reflected in overestimated coin sizes mediated the effect of shame on self-interested behavior. Our findings suggest that shame elicits the desire to acquire money to amend the threatened social self and improve self-esteem; however, it may induce a self-interested inclination that could harm social relationships.
Two new species of the lichenized genus Lasioloma are described from Asia: Lasioloma longiramosum W. C. Wang & A. Abas (collected from Malaysia), is characterized by a distinct woolly prothallus between dispersed thallus patches, comparatively small, muriform ascospores, long filiform conidia (main branch 22–28 μm in length, the other three branches 65–80 μm) and a foliicolous habitat; L. verrucosum W. C. Wang & X. L. Wei (collected from China), is characterized by a warted thallus, filiform conidia (main branch 22–32 μm in length, the other three branches 50–65 μm) and a corticolous habitat. The placement of both new species was confirmed by a molecular phylogenetic approach based on combined ITS, mtSSU and mtLSU sequences, and both are compared in detail to other similar species of the genus. Our study also revealed that the length of the conidial branches, which has not been explored in previous studies, should be regarded as an important feature for species delimitation in Lasioloma.
We firstly report a 2-μm all-fiber nonlinear pulse compressor based on two pieces of normal dispersion fiber (NDF), which enables a high-power scaling ability of watt-level and a high pulse compression ratio of 13.7. With the NDF-based all-fiber nonlinear pulse compressor, the 450-fs laser pulses with a repetition rate of 101.4 MHz are compressed to 35.1 fs, corresponding to a 5.2 optical oscillation cycle at the 2-μm wavelength region. The output average power reaches 1.28 W, which is believed to be the highest value never achieved from the previous 2-μm all-fiber nonlinear pulse compressors with a high pulse repetition rate above 100 MHz. The dynamic evolution of the ultrafast pulse inside the all-fiber nonlinear pulse compressor is numerically analyzed, matching well with the experimental results.
We obtained 24 air samples in 8 general wards temporarily converted into negative-pressure wards admitting coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) omicron variant BA.2.2 in Hong Kong. SARS-CoV-2 RNA was detected in 19 (79.2%) of 24 samples despite enhanced indoor air dilution. It is difficult to prevent airborne transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in hospitals.
Air dispersal of respiratory viruses other than SARS-CoV-2 has not been systematically reported. The incidence and factors associated with air dispersal of respiratory viruses are largely unknown.
We performed air sampling by collecting 72,000 L of air over 6 hours for pediatric and adolescent patients infected with parainfluenza virus 3 (PIF3), respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), rhinovirus, and adenovirus. The patients were singly or 2-patient cohort isolated in airborne infection isolation rooms (AIIRs) from December 3, 2021, to January 26, 2022. The viral load in nasopharyngeal aspirates (NPA) and air samples were measured. Factors associated with air dispersal were investigated and analyzed.
Of 20 singly isolated patients with median age of 30 months (range, 3 months–15 years), 7 (35%) had air dispersal of the viruses compatible with their NPA results. These included 4 (40%) of 10 PIF3-infected patients, 2 (66%) of 3 RSV-infected patients, and 1 (50%) of 2 adenovirus-infected patients. The mean viral load in their room air sample was 1.58×103 copies/mL. Compared with 13 patients (65%) without air dispersal, these 7 patients had a significantly higher mean viral load in their NPA specimens (6.15×107 copies/mL vs 1.61×105 copies/mL; P < .001). Another 14 patients were placed in cohorts as 7 pairs infected with the same virus (PIF3, 2 pairs; RSV, 3 pairs; rhinovirus, 1 pair; and adenovirus, 1 pair) in double-bed AIIRs, all of which had air dispersal. The mean room air viral load in 2-patient cohorts was significantly higher than in rooms of singly isolated patients (1.02×104 copies/mL vs 1.58×103 copies/mL; P = .020).
Air dispersal of common respiratory viruses may have infection prevention and public health implications.
This study aimed to investigate the relationship between depression in older nursing home residents and family caregivers’ (FCGs) depressive status and reasons for involvement with residents.
This study employed a cross-sectional design.
Eight nursing homes in northern Taiwan.
A total of 139 older resident–FCG pairs were recruited.
Depression was measured with the Geriatric Depression Scale-Short Form for nursing home residents and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale-Short Form for family members. Depression and demographic data were collected with face-to-face interviews. The meaning ascribed to caregivers’ nursing home visits was calibrated using the Family Meaning of Nursing-Home Visits scale. Multiple logistic regression was used to understand the factors related to residents’ depressive symptoms.
Depressive symptoms were present in 58.3% of the nursing home residents (n = 81). Depressive status of family members (Chi-square = 1.46, p = 0.23) or family’s visiting frequency (Chi-square = 1.64, p = 0.44) did not differ between residents with or without depressive symptoms. Factors associated with an increased risk of residents having depressive symptoms were age, self-perceived health status, and having a caregiver motivated to visit to assuage their guilt.
Visiting a family member to assuage their guilt was the only caregiver variable associated with depressive symptoms for nursing home residents. This finding suggests that developing interventions to improve personal relationships between nursing home residents and family members might facilitate the emotional support of caregivers and psychological support for older nursing home residents in Taiwan.
The associations between suicidal behaviours and childhood maltreatment (CM), as well as Internet addiction (IA) have been extensively examined. However, few studies pay attention to different types of CM and all stages of suicidality, including suicidal ideation (SI), suicidal plans (SP) and suicidal attempts (SA). Moreover, little is known regarding the mediation of IA on the relationship between CM and suicidal behaviours. The study aims to explore the direct effect of CM and IA on three stages of suicidal behaviours, and the indirect effect of CM on suicidality via IA.
A total of 16 130 high-school students aged 12–18 were recruited using a stratified cluster sampling strategy across five representative provinces in China. Relevant information was collected by a self-administered anonymous questionnaire. Multinomial logistic regression analysis and structural equation model were used to examine the associations.
During the last year, 16.0% of participants reported suicidal behaviours. Specifically, 7.9% reported SI only, 4.6% reported SP but no SA, and 3.5% reported SA. The prevalence of neglect, physical abuse and IA in moderate to severe were 28.9, 19.9 and 33.1%, respectively. After controlling for demographic characteristics and confounding factors, such as loneliness, psychological resilience, and social support, moderate and severe neglect, physical abuse and IA were associated with an increased risk of SI, SP and SA (p < 0.01). The total effect of neglect and physical abuse on suicidal behaviours were 0.152 and 0.172, respectively (p < 0.001). The mediation proportion of IA on the association between neglect and suicidal behaviours, as well as physical abuse and suicidal behaviours were 22.4 and 18.0%, respectively.
CM and IA are independently associated with suicidal behaviours among Chinese adolescents. Moreover, IA plays a mediating role on the relationship between CM and suicidality. Targeted interventions for adolescents’ suicidal behaviours should focus on those who have experience of CM and IA.
Dietary recommendations (DR) in the USA may be inadequate at improving diets in racial/ethnic minority communities and may require redesign of the systems driving their development over the long term. Meanwhile, cultural adaptation of evidence-based DR may be an important strategy for mitigating nutrition disparities, but less is known about the adaptability of these recommendations to meet the needs of diverse groups. We examined the content and origin of major DRs – aspects that provide context on their potential universality across populations and evaluated their potential for cultural adaptation.
Case studies of Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH), the Mediterranean diet (MD), the EAT-Lancet diet (EAT) and the NOVA classification system.
Racial/ethnic minority populations.
Current DR differ in their origin/evolution but are similar in their reductionist emphasis on physical health. DASH has been successfully adapted for some cultures but may be challenged by the need for intensive resources; MD may be more beneficial if applied as part of a broader set of food procurement/preparation practices than as just diet alone; EAT-Lancet adaptation may not honor existing country-specific practices that are already beneficial to human and environmental health (e.g. traditional/plant-based diets); evidence for cultural adaptation is limited with NOVA, but classification of levels of food processing has potential for widespread application.
For DR to equitably support diverse populations, they must move beyond a Eurocentric or ‘general population’ framing, be more inclusive of cultural differences and honour social practices to improve diet and reduce disparities.
This article examines the earliest examples of replication of bronze objects of complicated structure in China. It uses four quadrupeds from the Freer Gallery (National Museum of Asian Art, Smithsonian Institution), the Asian Art Museum of San Francisco, the British Museum, and the Yūrinkan Museum in Kyōto as examples to illustrate the complex technology required in replicating bronzes. It provides evidence to define identical bronzes and proves that the four quadrupeds shared the same decorated model. The application of section-mold casting, spacers, clay cores, and mold section assemblage will be examined using 3D scanning, X-ray photography, computerized tomography (CT) scanning, and alloy composition analysis.