Tumour-associated macrophages (TAMs) constitute a plastic and heterogeneous cell population of the tumour microenvironment (TME) that can account for up to 50% of solid tumours. TAMs heterogeneous are associated with different cancer types and stages, different stimulation of bioactive molecules and different TME, which are crucial drivers of tumour progression, metastasis and resistance to therapy. In this context, understanding the sources and regulatory mechanisms of TAM heterogeneity and searching for novel therapies targeting TAM subpopulations are essential for future studies. In this review, we discuss emerging evidence highlighting the redefinition of TAM heterogeneity from three different directions: origins, phenotypes and functions. We notably focus on the causes and consequences of TAM heterogeneity which have implications for the evolution of therapeutic strategies that targeted the subpopulations of TAMs.