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Objective: Deficits in the semantic learning strategy were observed in subjects with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) in our previous study. In the present study, we explored the contributions of executive function and brain structure changes to the decline in the semantic learning strategy in aMCI. Methods: A neuropsychological battery was used to test memory and executive function in 96 aMCI subjects and 90 age- and gender-matched healthy controls (HCs). The semantic clustering ratio on the verbal learning test was calculated to evaluate learning strategy. Medial temporal lobe atrophy (MTA) and white matter hyperintensities (WMH) were measured on MRI with the MTA and Fazekas visual rating scales, respectively. Results: Compared to HCs, aMCI subjects had poorer performance in terms of memory, executive function, and the semantic clustering ratio (P < .001). In aMCI subjects, no significant correlation between learning strategy and executive function was observed. aMCI subjects with obvious MTA demonstrated a lower semantic clustering ratio than those without MTA (P < .001). There was no significant difference in the learning strategies between subjects with high-grade WMH and subjects with low-grade WMH. Conclusion: aMCI subjects showed obvious impairment in the semantic learning strategy, which was attributable to MTA but independent of executive dysfunction and subcortical WMH. These findings need to be further validated in large cohorts with biomarkers identified using volumetric brain measurements. (JINS, 2019, 25, 706–717)
Integration of photonic devices on silicon (Si) substrates is a key method in enabling large scale manufacturing of Si-based photonic–electronic circuits for next generation systems with high performance, small form factor, low power consumption, and low cost. Germanium (Ge) is a promising material due to its pseudo-direct bandgap and its compatibility with Si-CMOS processing. In this article, we present our recent progress on achieving high quality germanium-on-silicon (Ge/Si) materials. Subsequently, the performance of various functional devices such as photodetectors, lasers, waveguides, and sensors that are fabricated on the Ge/Si platform are discussed. Some possible future works such as the incorporation of tin (Sn) into Ge will be proposed. Finally, some applications based on a fully monolithic integrated photonic–electronic chip on an Si platform will be highlighted at the end of this article.
Background: This study examined the use of low doses of antipsychotic medications (300 mg/day CPZeq or less) in older Asian patients with schizophrenia and its demographic and clinical correlates.
Methods: Information on hospitalized patients with schizophrenia, aged 55 years or older, was extracted from the database of the Research on Asian Psychotropic Prescription Patterns (REAP) study (2001–2009). Data on 1,452 patients in eight Asian countries and territories including China, Hong Kong, Japan, Korea, Singapore, Taiwan, India, and Malaysia were analyzed. Sociodemographic and clinical characteristics and antipsychotic prescriptions were recorded using a standardized protocol and data collection procedure.
Results: The prescription frequency for low doses of antipsychotic medications was 40.9% in the pooled sample. Multiple logistic regression analysis of the whole sample showed that patients on low doses of antipsychotic medications were more likely to be female, have an older age, a shorter length of illness, and less positive symptoms. Of patients in the six countries and territories that participated in all the surveys between 2001 and 2009, those in Japan were less likely to receive low doses of antipsychotics.
Conclusion: Low doses of antipsychotic medications were only applied in less than half of older Asian patients with schizophrenia.
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