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Understanding the nature of meaning and its extensions (with metaphor as one typical kind) has been one core issue in figurative language study since Aristotle’s time. This research takes a computational cognitive perspective to model metaphor based on the assumption that meaning is perceptual, embodied, and encyclopedic. We model word meaning representation for metaphor detection with embodiment information obtained from behavioral experiments. Our work is the first attempt to incorporate sensorimotor knowledge into neural networks for metaphor detection, and demonstrates superiority, consistency, and interpretability compared to peer systems based on two general datasets. In addition, with cross-sectional analysis of different feature schemas, our results suggest that metaphor, as a device of cognitive conceptualization, can be ‘learned’ from the perceptual and actional information independent of several more explicit levels of linguistic representation. The access to such knowledge allows us to probe further into word meaning mapping tendencies relevant to our conceptualization and reaction to the physical world.
This chapter introduces the unique parts of speech of measure words (classifiers) in Chinese, with a focus on the grammatical usages of measure words to count nouns. The various functions of different types of measure words in sentences are discussed.
This chapter introduces the Chinese sound system, with a focus on syllable structure. An overview of the nature and distribution of Chinese initial consonants, finals, and tones is introduced, and the rules of tone sandhi are also explained.
This chapter covers three different types of Chinese particles, specifically the structural, the aspectual, and the modal. Their functions, supplemented by detailed information on the uses and restrictions of common particles, are also discussed.
This chapter focuses on how numbers are represented according to the grammar of Chinese. The rules governing the usage of basic, ordinal, and multiple numbers are introduced as well as their application in decimals, fractions, and approximations. Several special usages involving different forms of the same numeral are explained.
This chapter introduces the passive 被 bèi construction by outlining the similarities and differences between the bèi construction and the bǎ construction. The grammatical features of the bèi construction are explained, with an emphasis on the difference between typical passive sentences in other languages. Several other forms of passive sentences in Chinese are also provided.
This chapter introduces the concept of grammar of a particular language. The basic units of grammar in Chinese are introduced in order to underline the distinguishing characteristics of Chinese grammar. By comparing Chinese with English, the chapter demonstrates that Chinese words have no form changes in sentences regardless of quantity or tense; thus, the relationship between words plays an important role in determining their parts of speech.
This chapter introduces simple sentences in terms of their components and structures. The functions of a simple sentence are explained. Special simple sentences without a subject or a predicate are introduced by their grammatical features and functions.
This chapter introduces compound sentences, as the components of these complicated sentences have equal importance. Four types of common compound sentences are examined: coordinative, successive, incremental, and alternative. Each type is introduced in terms of specific correlative markers and their meanings and uses.
This chapter introduces conjunctions in Chinese. The focus is on distinguishing conjunctions, prepositions, and adverbs. This chapter also provides detailed information on the usages of common conjunctions and connective expressions.
This chapter introduces parts of speech (PoS) and their functions in Chinese. The PoS that are introduced include the major categories of nouns, verbs, adjectives, and adverbs. The unique category of classifiers (measure words) and the minor categories of numbers, pronouns, modal verbs, prepositions, conjunctions, and particles are also discussed.
This chapter introduces two common emphatic constructions in Chinese: the 连...都/也 lián...dōu/yě construction and the 是...的 shì...de construction. The differences between expressing emphasis in Chinese and English are examined.