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Ubiquinone is a lipid antioxidant, and a novel liquid ubiquinol (a hydro-soluble, reduced form of coenzyme Q10) supplement was recently developed. The purpose of this study was to examine the levels of glucose, lipids and antioxidant capacity of type 2 diabetes patients after liquid ubiquinol supplementation. This study was designed as a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. In all, fifty participants were randomly assigned to a placebo (n 25) or liquid ubiquinol (100 mg/d, n 25) group, and the intervention lasted for 12 weeks. Plasma coenzyme Q10, glucose homoeostasis parameters, lipid profiles, oxidative stress and antioxidative enzyme activities were measured during the study. After 12 weeks of supplementation, glyco Hb (HbA1c) value was significantly decreased in the liquid ubiquinol group (P=0·03), and subjects in the liquid ubiquinol group had significantly lower anti-glycaemic medication effect scores (MES) compared with those in the placebo group (P=0·03). The catalase (P<0·01) and glutathione peroxidase (P=0·03) activities were increased significantly after supplementation. Plasma coenzyme Q10 was correlated with the insulin level (P=0·05), homoeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance (P=0·07), quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (P=0·03) and the anti-hyperglycaemic agents’ MES (P=0·03) after supplementation. Lipid profiles did not change after supplementation; however, the subjects in the placebo group had a significantly lower level of HDL-cholesterol after 12 weeks of intervention. In conclusion, oral intake of 100 mg/d liquid ubiquinol might benefit type 2 diabetes patients by increasing antioxidant enzyme activity levels, reducing HbA1c levels and maintaining HDL-cholesterol levels.
TiO2 thin films prepared by metalorganic decomposition (MOD-TiO2) and sol-gel processes (SG-TiO2) were investigated in terms of the anatase-to-rutile phase transformation and microstructural evolution. It was found that the chemical reactivity of the ligand groups initially coordinated on the titanium precursor plays a decisive role in the structure development of as-deposited SG- and MOD-TiO2 films. MOD-TiO2 films consist of small aggregated particles and therefore, tend to coalesce together to form an inhomogeneous microstructure during the anatase-to-rutile phase transformation. On the other hand, SG-TiO2 films consist of uniform large particles that tend to grow homogeneously. MOD-TiO2 films showed a higher crystallization temperature than the SG-TiO2 films but the temperature of the anatase-to-rutile phase transformation is much lower in MOD- (approximately 775 °C) as compared to SG-TiO2 films (approximately 930 °C). The activation energy (Q) was estimated as 524 and 882 kJ/mol for the MOD- and SG-TiO2 films, respectively. The lower transformation temperature and activation energy in MOD-TiO2 films were due to smaller grain size and more potential nucleation sites existing in the un-transformed MOD-TiO2 film structure, which can accelerate the rate of anatase-to-rutile transformation.
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