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Sackett et al. (2022) identified previously unnoticed flaws in the way range restriction corrections have been applied in prior meta-analyses of personnel selection tools. They offered revised estimates of operational validity, which are often quite different from the prior estimates. The present paper attempts to draw out the applied implications of that work. We aim to a) present a conceptual overview of the critique of prior approaches to correction, b) outline the implications of this new perspective for the relative validity of different predictors and for the tradeoff between validity and diversity in selection system design, c) highlight the need to attend to variability in meta-analytic validity estimates, rather than just the mean, d) summarize reactions encountered to date to Sackett et al., and e) offer a series of recommendations regarding how to go about correcting validity estimates for unreliability in the criterion and for range restriction in applied work.
The Subglacial Antarctic Lakes Scientific Access (SALSA) Project accessed Mercer Subglacial Lake using environmentally clean hot-water drilling to examine interactions among ice, water, sediment, rock, microbes and carbon reservoirs within the lake water column and underlying sediments. A ~0.4 m diameter borehole was melted through 1087 m of ice and maintained over ~10 days, allowing observation of ice properties and collection of water and sediment with various tools. Over this period, SALSA collected: 60 L of lake water and 10 L of deep borehole water; microbes >0.2 μm in diameter from in situ filtration of ~100 L of lake water; 10 multicores 0.32–0.49 m long; 1.0 and 1.76 m long gravity cores; three conductivity–temperature–depth profiles of borehole and lake water; five discrete depth current meter measurements in the lake and images of ice, the lake water–ice interface and lake sediments. Temperature and conductivity data showed the hydrodynamic character of water mixing between the borehole and lake after entry. Models simulating melting of the ~6 m thick basal accreted ice layer imply that debris fall-out through the ~15 m water column to the lake sediments from borehole melting had little effect on the stratigraphy of surficial sediment cores.
Discovery of strongly-lensed gravitational wave (GW) sources will unveil binary compact objects at higher redshifts and lower intrinsic luminosities than is possible without lensing. Such systems will yield unprecedented constraints on the mass distribution in galaxy clusters, measurements of the polarization of GWs, tests of General Relativity, and constraints on the Hubble parameter. Excited by these prospects, and intrigued by the presence of so-called “heavy black holes” in the early detections by LIGO-Virgo, we commenced a search for strongly-lensed GWs and possible electromagnetic counterparts in the latter stages of the second LIGO observing run (O2). Here, we summarise our calculation of the detection rate of strongly-lensed GWs, describe our review of BBH detections from O1, outline our observing strategy in O2, summarize our follow-up observations of GW170814, and discuss the future prospects of detection.
Streams in the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica, flow during the summer melt season (4–12 weeks) when air temperatures are close to the freezing point of water. Because of the low precipitation rates, streams originate from glacial meltwater and flow to closed-basin lakes on the valley floor. Water samples have been collected from the streams in the Dry Valleys since the start of the McMurdo Dry Valleys Long-Term Ecological Research project in 1993 and these have been analysed for ions and nutrient chemistry. Controls such as landscape position, morphology of the channels, and biotic and abiotic processes are thought to influence the stream chemistry. Sea-salt derived ions tend to be higher in streams that are closer to the ocean and those streams that drain the Taylor Glacier in western Taylor Valley. Chemical weathering is an important process influencing stream chemistry throughout the Dry Valleys. Nutrient availability is dependent on landscape age and varies with distance from the coast. The streams in Taylor Valley span a wide range in composition and total dissolved solids and are surprisingly similar to a wide range of much larger temperate and tropical river systems.
A single leafy stem from the Middle or lowermost Upper Devonian Campo Chico Formation, Sierra de Perijá, western Venezuela, is the first record of the important Devonian herbaceous lycophyte Leclercqia from South America, usually considered as part of western Gondwana. The seemingly cosmopolitan distribution of this genus is discussed in relation to coeval assemblages and palaeo-continental reconstructions.
Two large fossil plants are described from the Givetian (Middle Devonian) Eday Flags, South Ronaldsay, Orkney Isles, northern Scotland. Fossils with branches joined to stems of this age are rare. Each specimen comprises a robust and tapering main trunk from which numerous closely spaced branches arise distally. Although poorly preserved such that generic identifications are not possible, both specimens display the characteristic architecture of the plant order Pseudosporochnales (Cladoxylopsida). The newly discovered specimens demonstrate a variation in size and form that adds further data to the understanding of the ontogeny of these enigmatic plants, complementing recent morphological and anatomical findings. These specimens, in combination with many more fragmentary fossils of the same kind from the Orcadian sedimentary basin, add to our knowledge of the Givetian floras of Britain, and show that large plants with upright stems were present in the Middle Devonian landscape of Scotland.
The relation between self-reported cognitive dysfunction and
neuropsychological performance over 24 weeks was assessed in a sample of
53 multiple sclerosis patients. Subjects were assessed at Weeks Zero and
24 as part of a clinical trial to enhance cognition. At baseline, subjects
had at least mild cognitive impairment on the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning
Test and an absence of depression. Neuropsychological performance was
assessed with a modification of the well standardized Brief Repeatable
Battery. The 5-item Perceived Deficits Questionnaire and a 2-item memory
and attention/concentration questionnaire assessed self-perceived
cognitive impairment. Self-assessed cognition did not correlate with
neuropsychological performance at either baseline or 24 weeks. However,
changes in the self-assessment measures did correlate with changes in
neuropsychological performance. Patients accurately perceived some changes
in their level of cognitive dysfunction, though they were insensitive to
the degree of their current dysfunction. Possible explanations of this
pattern of results are discussed. (JINS, 2005, 11,
Fossil plants are described from the upper part of the Devonian Lolén Formation, Sierra de
la Ventana, Buenos Aires Province, Argentina, in the area of Estancia Las Acacias. The sequence is
composed mainly of dark grey shales, and fossils were found in a single horizon where thin interlayered
beds of fine reddish-brown micaceous sandstones appear where the environment of marine
deposition became more shallow. The age of the Lolén Formation is presently established on the basis
of brachiopods, these being characteristic elements of the Malvinokaffric realm from the Gondwana
Lower Devonian (Emsian). The fossil plants are remarkably preserved given that they are in rocks that
have undergone intense deformation. The plants are identified as Haplostigma sp. and Haskinsia cf.
H. colophylla, and suggest a Middle Devonian age (Givetian) for the fossil-bearing levels. Haskinsia,
identified on the basis of leaf morphology, is the first well-delimited Middle Devonian lycopsid genus
described from Argentina, and the record from the most southerly palaeolatitude. During the Middle
Devonian, Haskinsia was distributed in tropical, warm temperate and high southern latitude, ?cool
Plant fossils are described from the Cuche Formation, Eastern Cordillera, Colombia in the
area of Floresta. Those identified as Colpodexylon cf. deatsii Banks and cf. Archaeopteris sp. suggest
an earliest Late Devonian (Frasnian) age for the formation. These or similar taxa are also found in
contemporaneous deposits in western Venezuela, and other elements of the Venezuelan flora are
found in a geographically intermediate locality. All three Devonian plant localities in the northwest
of South America are within the Colombian Eastern Cordillera and its northern extension, the
Venezuelan Perijá Range, an area that has been integrated as a part of the so-called ‘Eastern Andean
Terrane’ or ‘Central Andean Province’, supposedly accreted to the autochthonous block of the
Guyana Shield during the early Jurassic or before. Although both invertebrates and plants from this
terrane have strong affinities to North American and European assemblages, and might be interpreted
as implying a Laurussian origin for the Eastern Andean Terrane, the evidence is not yet unequivocal,
with some authors postulating an in situ development of this province.
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