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Robert Maxwell Young's first book Mind, Brain and Adaptation in the Nineteenth Century (1970), written from 1960 to 1965, still merits reading as a study of the naturalization of mind and its relation to social thought in Victorian Britain. I examine the book from two perspectives that give the volume its unique character: first, Young's interest in psychology, which he considered should be used to inform humane professional practices and be the basis of social reform; second, new approaches to the history of scientific ideas. I trace Young's intellectual interests to the Yale Philosophy Department, the Cambridge Department of Experimental Psychology and a new history and philosophy of science community. Although Young changed his political outlook and historiography radically after 1965, he always remained faithful to ideas about thought and practice described in Mind, Brain.
Wild-type transthyretin amyloidosis (wtATTR) is an important cause of heart failure (HF); however, the prevalence and clinical significance of neurologic complications remains uncertain.
This analysis reports findings from a single-centre experience of routine neuropathy screening at the time of wtATTR diagnosis by nerve conduction studies and neurologist assessment, compared with age-matched controls.
Forty-one wtATTR patients were included, 39 (95%) males, mean age 78.4 ± 7.7 years, 22 (54%) New York Heart Association (NYHA) class III–IV HF, along with 15 age-matched controls (mean age 77.1 ± 4.2 years, 80% male). Twenty-one (51%) wtATTR patients were diagnosed with polyneuropathy, 15 (37%) with spinal stenosis, 36 (88%) with carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) and 14 (34%) with ulnar neuropathy. Comparison diagnoses among controls were 1 (7%), 0, 1 (7%) and 3 (20%), respectively. Among patients with NYHA class III–IV HF, 16 (73%) had polyneuropathy compared with 5 (26%) with class I–II (p < 0.01), odds ratio of 7.5 (95% confidence interval 1.9–29.9). After neuropathy screening, 19 (46%) patients were offered neurologic therapy and/or additional diagnostic evaluation. This included CTS release surgery (16, 39%), neuropathic pain medication (3, 7%), nerve block (1, 2%), wrist splinting (2, 5%) and foot care (1, 2%). Spine imaging was performed for 3 (7%) patients, and deltoid muscle and sural nerve biopsy for 1 (2%) patient.
Screening of wtATTR patients for neurologic complications resulted in a management change for nearly half. CTS, polyneuropathy and ulnar neuropathy were common. This approach warrants consideration as part of routine assessment for newly diagnosed wtATTR patients.
The Spoon-billed Sandpiper Calidris pygmaea is a ‘Critically Endangered’ migratory shorebird. The species faces an array of threats in its non-breeding range, making conservation intervention essential. However, conservation efforts are reliant on identifying the species’ key stopover and wintering sites. Using Maximum Entropy models, we predicted Spoon-billed Sandpiper distribution across the non-breeding range, using data from recent field surveys and satellite tracking. Model outputs suggest only a limited number of stopover sites are suitable for migrating birds, with sites in the Yellow Sea and on the Jiangsu coast in China highlighted as particularly important. All the previously known core wintering sites were identified by the model including the Ganges-Brahmaputra Delta, Nan Thar Island and the Gulf of Mottama. In addition, the model highlighted sites subsequently found to be occupied, and pinpointed potential new sites meriting investigation, notably on Borneo and Sulawesi, and in parts of India and the Philippines. A comparison between the areas identified as most likely to be occupied and protected areas showed that very few locations are covered by conservation designations. Known sites must be managed for conservation as a priority, and potential new sites should be surveyed as soon as is feasible to assess occupancy status. Site protection should take place in concert with conservation interventions including habitat management, discouraging hunting, and fostering alternative livelihoods.
Radiocarbon (14C) ages cannot provide absolutely dated chronologies for archaeological or paleoenvironmental studies directly but must be converted to calendar age equivalents using a calibration curve compensating for fluctuations in atmospheric 14C concentration. Although calibration curves are constructed from independently dated archives, they invariably require revision as new data become available and our understanding of the Earth system improves. In this volume the international 14C calibration curves for both the Northern and Southern Hemispheres, as well as for the ocean surface layer, have been updated to include a wealth of new data and extended to 55,000 cal BP. Based on tree rings, IntCal20 now extends as a fully atmospheric record to ca. 13,900 cal BP. For the older part of the timescale, IntCal20 comprises statistically integrated evidence from floating tree-ring chronologies, lacustrine and marine sediments, speleothems, and corals. We utilized improved evaluation of the timescales and location variable 14C offsets from the atmosphere (reservoir age, dead carbon fraction) for each dataset. New statistical methods have refined the structure of the calibration curves while maintaining a robust treatment of uncertainties in the 14C ages, the calendar ages and other corrections. The inclusion of modeled marine reservoir ages derived from a three-dimensional ocean circulation model has allowed us to apply more appropriate reservoir corrections to the marine 14C data rather than the previous use of constant regional offsets from the atmosphere. Here we provide an overview of the new and revised datasets and the associated methods used for the construction of the IntCal20 curve and explore potential regional offsets for tree-ring data. We discuss the main differences with respect to the previous calibration curve, IntCal13, and some of the implications for archaeology and geosciences ranging from the recent past to the time of the extinction of the Neanderthals.
We describe 14 yr of public data from the Parkes Pulsar Timing Array (PPTA), an ongoing project that is producing precise measurements of pulse times of arrival from 26 millisecond pulsars using the 64-m Parkes radio telescope with a cadence of approximately 3 weeks in three observing bands. A comprehensive description of the pulsar observing systems employed at the telescope since 2004 is provided, including the calibration methodology and an analysis of the stability of system components. We attempt to provide full accounting of the reduction from the raw measured Stokes parameters to pulse times of arrival to aid third parties in reproducing our results. This conversion is encapsulated in a processing pipeline designed to track provenance. Our data products include pulse times of arrival for each of the pulsars along with an initial set of pulsar parameters and noise models. The calibrated pulse profiles and timing template profiles are also available. These data represent almost 21 000 h of recorded data spanning over 14 yr. After accounting for processes that induce time-correlated noise, 22 of the pulsars have weighted root-mean-square timing residuals of
in at least one radio band. The data should allow end users to quickly undertake their own gravitational wave analyses, for example, without having to understand the intricacies of pulsar polarisation calibration or attain a mastery of radio frequency interference mitigation as is required when analysing raw data files.
Natural zeolites in the Aksitero sedimentary formation of the western Luzon area of the Philippines were evaluated. The natural washed zeolite (NW-Z) was preconditioned with acid to purify it and increase its surface area. Acid treatment with 3 M HCl for 12 h yielded optimum acid treatment of the NW-Z, causing increases in the Si/Al ratio, the specific surface area by 32.5% and the porosity of the acid-treated zeolite (HC-Z). The HC-Z was washed with 4 M NaCl for 3, 6, 12, 18, 24, 48 and 72 h to improve its cation-exchange capacity for copper. The sodium-treated zeolite (Na-Z) was immersed in 100 ppm CuSO4 solution to test the copper-uptake capacity. Pretreatment of HC-Z with 4 M NaCl for 24 h is optimal for sodium treatment of the preconditioned HC-Z. The preconditioning techniques did not significantly alter the structure and morphology of the zeolite samples. It is suggested that the preconditioned Philippine natural zeolite samples are readily available for further functionalization that will enhance their antibacterial, catalytic and adsorption properties, with various useful applications in the field of catalysis, biomedicine, environmental mitigation and wastewater treatment.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: The objective of this study is to assess the efficacy of combined AF and NP repairs to prevent degenerative changes and restore native disc morphology in an in vivo large animal model. We hypothesize that combined repairs will prevent disc degeneration following injury to a greater extent than the individual repairs after 6 weeks in vivo, as demonstrated through disc height measurements and disc morphology. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: A total of 8 skeletally mature female Finn sheep were used in this study. Following a previously described method, IVDs from L1 to L6 of the lumbar spine were exposed using a lateral access, extraperitoneal approach5. IVDs were randomized into 5 treatment groups: 1) intact discs, 2) discs injured via a 3 cm x 1 cm box annulotomy and partial nucleotomy, 3) injury followed by a high density collagen (HDC) AF patch, 4) injury followed by injection of a modified hyaluronic acid (HA) into the NP, and 5) injury followed by both the HDC AF patch and HA NP injection. The HDC treatment was 15 mg/mL type-I collagen mixed with 0.06mM riboflavin, injected at the defect site and crosslinked in situ with blue light. The NP injection was HA modified with C16 side chains to increase the viscosity of the hydrogel (HYADD 4®)6. At 6 weeks post-operatively, sheep were sacrificed and had 3T magnetic resonance images (MRI) taken of their lumbar spine. Disc height analysis and Pfirrmann grading were performed on each segment using MR images. Additionally, quantitative MRI analyses were performed using a custom MATLAB algorithm that segments NP from the surrounding tissue and directly measures the NP volume. ANOVA with Tukey’s HSD was used to determine statistical significance between groups for disc height and quantitative MRI analyses, and the Kruskal-Wallis test with Mann-Whitney tests was used to statistically analyze Pfirrmann Grades. All animal use followed approved IACUC protocol. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: As shown in axial MR images (Figure 1A), intact discs had hyperintense NP with a distinct border to the AF. The discs receiving injury with no treatment had hypointense NP with no distinct border between the AF and NP. Individual and combined treatment with the HA NP injection and HDC AF patch appeared to preserve the hyperintense NP signal and AF/NP border. Intact control discs were not degenerated and had an average Pfirrmann grade of 1 (Figure 1B), while injured, untreated discs had significant degeneration with an average Pfirrmann grade of 3. Discs receiving the HA NP injection and collagen AF patch individually showed fewer signs of degeneration than the injured alone, and the combined treatment resulted in the least amount of degeneration with Pfirrmann grades not significantly different than the intact controls. Disc height index confirmed the trends seen in the Pfirrmann grades (Figure 1C), where injured discs lost 20% of the intact disc height, the individual NP and AF repairs restored 5-10% of intact disc height, and the combined repairs preserved 90% of the intact disc height. The NP voxel count of all treatment groups were similar to the intact controls (Figure 1D). DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: The objective of this study was to determine how combined AF and NP can prevent degenerative changes to the disc in a large animal in vivo model. Pfirrmann grading and disc height index results show that the greatest preservation of disc morphology was seen with combined AF and NP repairs, while the individual strategies prevented degenerative changes better than injury with no treatment. It appears the HA NP injection restores lost water content to the disc following injury, and the AF collagen patch plays a role in maintaining the NP repair within the disc. This is the first study to our knowledge to attempt combined AF and NP repairs in an in vivo large animal model. Combining NP and AF repairs leads to significantly improved outcomes following disc injury, which warrants the translation of combined repairs into the clinic to improve patient outcomes with degenerative disc disease involving NP and AF.
More students are beginning their college careers at community colleges before completing degrees at four-year institutions. As enrollments swell at these two-year institutions, issues surrounding transfer and articulation agreements are increasingly important, and two- and four-year institutions must work together on the recruitment, retention, and transition of political science majors. Central to this collaboration is the curriculum. Building on conclusions from the 2011 Leadership Collaborative Core Curriculum and General Education track regarding a common curriculum in the discipline, this article examines the political science curriculum using data from 47 two-year colleges with separate political science departments. We examined similarities and differences among these programs and found sufficient commonality in curriculum to allow students to transfer credits to four-year institutions. The article also offers community colleges an indication of common curricular features and informs the wider profession about community college curriculum design.
Palmer amaranth and waterhemp have become increasingly troublesome weeds throughout the United States. Both species are highly adaptable and emerge continuously throughout the summer months, presenting the need for a residual PRE application in soybean. To improve season-long control of Amaranthus spp., 19 PRE treatments were evaluated on glyphosate-resistant Palmer amaranth in 2013 and 2014 at locations in Arkansas, Indiana, Nebraska, Illinois, and Tennessee; and on glyphosate-resistant waterhemp at locations in Illinois, Missouri, and Nebraska. The two Amaranthus species were analyzed separately; data for each species were pooled across site-years, and site-year was included as a random variable in the analyses. The dissipation of weed control throughout the course of the experiments was compared among treatments with the use of regression analysis where percent weed control was described as a function of time (the number of weeks after treatment [WAT]). At the mean (i.e., average) WAT (4.3 and 3.2 WAT for Palmer amaranth and waterhemp, respectively) isoxaflutole + S-metolachlor + metribuzin had the highest predicted control of Palmer amaranth (98%) and waterhemp (99%). Isoxaflutole + S-metolachlor + metribuzin, S-metolachlor + mesotrione, and flumioxazin + pyroxasulfone had a predicted control ≥ 97% and similar model parameter estimates, indicating control declined at similar rates for these treatments. Dicamba and 2,4-D provided some, short-lived residual control of Amaranthus spp. When dicamba was added to metribuzin or S-metolachlor, control increased compared to dicamba alone. Flumioxazin + pyroxasulfone, a currently labeled PRE, performed similarly to treatments containing isoxaflutole or mesotrione. Additional sites of action will provide soybean growers more opportunities to control these weeds and reduce the potential for herbicide resistance.
Herbicide-resistant Amaranthus spp. continue to cause management difficulties in soybean. New soybean technologies under development, including resistance to various combinations of glyphosate, glufosinate, dicamba, 2,4-D, isoxaflutole, and mesotrione, will make possible the use of additional herbicide sites of action in soybean than is currently available. When this research was conducted, these soybean traits were still regulated and testing herbicide programs with the appropriate soybean genetics in a single experiment was not feasible. Therefore, the effectiveness of various herbicide programs (PRE herbicides followed by POST herbicides) was evaluated in bare-ground experiments on glyphosate-resistant Palmer amaranth and glyphosate-resistant waterhemp (both tall and common) at locations in Arkansas, Illinois, Indiana, Missouri, Nebraska, and Tennessee. Twenty-five herbicide programs were evaluated; 5 of which were PRE herbicides only, 10 were PRE herbicides followed by POST herbicides 3 to 4 wks after (WA) the PRE application (EPOST), and 10 were PRE herbicides followed by POST herbicides 6 to 7 WA the PRE application (LPOST). Programs with EPOST herbicides provided 94% or greater control of Palmer amaranth and waterhemp at 3 to 4 WA the EPOST. Overall, programs with LPOST herbicides resulted in a period of weed emergence in which weeds would typically compete with a crop. Weeds were not completely controlled with the LPOST herbicides because weed sizes were larger (≥ 15 cm) compared with their sizes at the EPOST application (≤ 7 cm). Most programs with LPOST herbicides provided 80 to 95% control at 3 to 4 WA applied LPOST. Based on an orthogonal contrast, using a synthetic-auxin herbicide LPOST improves control of Palmer amaranth and waterhemp over programs not containing a synthetic-auxin LPOST. These results show herbicides that can be used in soybean and that contain auxinic- or HPPD-resistant traits will provide growers with an opportunity for better control of glyphosate-resistant Palmer amaranth and waterhemp over a wide range of geographies and environments.
This is a study of the growth and decline of cities for the purpose of identifying those events in which they significantly increased in size. Significant changes in the scale of cities are important for understanding the long-term trend toward more complex and hierarchical human societies. We report the results of an inventory of cycles, upsweeps, and collapses of settlements in five separate interpolity systems. Upsweeps are instances in which the largest settlement in a world system significantly increases in size. Collapses occur when the size of the largest settlement greatly decreases and stays down for a significant period of time rather than rebounding. We use regional interpolity systems (world systems) rather than single polities or settlements as our unit of analysis. Because the accurate designation of sweeps requires interval scale measures, we are limited to those regions and time periods for which quantitative estimates of largest settlement sizes are regularly available. We find a total of 18 upsweeps and five downsweeps, and only two instances of prolonged systemwide settlement collapse. We also investigate whether or not the rate of cycles has increased over the long run, and we find that cycles of city growth and decline have not accelerated. We also find a greater rate of urban cycles in the Western (Central) System than in the East Asian System, which supports the usual notion that the Western city system was less stable than the Eastern city system.