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Multiple guidelines recommend discontinuation of prophylactic antibiotics <24 hours after surgery. In a multicenter, retrospective cohort of 2,954 mastectomy patients ± immediate breast reconstruction, we found that utilization of prophylactic postdischarge antibiotics varied dramatically at the surgeon level among general surgeons and was virtually universal among plastic surgeons.
Background: Acute respiratory infections (ARIs) are a key target to improve antibiotic use in the outpatient setting. The Core Elements of Outpatient Antibiotic Stewardship provide a framework for improving antibiotic use, but data on safety and effectiveness of interventions to improve antibiotic use are limited. We report the impact of Core Elements implementation within Veterans’ Healthcare Administration clinics on antibiotic prescribing and patient outcomes. Methods: The intervention targeting treatment of uncomplicated ARIs (sinusitis, pharyngitis, bronchitis, and viral upper respiratory infections [URIs]) in emergency department and primary care settings was initiated within 10 sites between September 2017 and January 2018. The intervention was developed using the Core Elements and included local site champions, audit-and-feedback with peer comparison, and academic detailing. We evaluated the following outcomes: per-visit antibiotic prescribing rates overall and by diagnosis; appropriateness of treatment; 30-day ARI revisits; 30-day infectious complications (eg,, pneumonia,); 30-day adverse medication effects; 90-day Clostridium difficile infection (CDI); and 30-day hospitalizations. Multilevel logistic regression was used to calculate rate ratios (RR) with 95% CI for each outcome in the postintervention period (12 months) compared to the preintervention period (39–42 months). Results: There were 14,020 uncomplicated ARI visits before the intervention and 4,866 uncomplicated ARI visits after the intervention. The proportions of uncomplicated ARI visits with antibiotics prescribed were 59.17% before the intervention versus 44.34% after the intervention. A trend in reduced antibiotic prescribing for ARIs throughout the entire (before and after) observation period was evident (0.92; 95% CI, 0.90–0.94); however, a significant reduction in antibiotic prescribing after the intervention was identified (0.74; 95% CI, 0.59–0.93). Per-visit antibiotic prescribing rates decreased significantly for bronchitis and URI (0.54; 95% CI, 0.44–0.65), pharyngitis (0.76; 95% CI, 0.67–0.86), and sinusitis (0.92; 95% CI, 0.85–1.0). Appropriate therapy for pharyngitis increased (1.43; 95% CI, 1.21–1.68), but appropriate therapy for sinusitis remained unchanged (0.92; 95% CI, 0.85–1.0) after the intervention. Complications associated with antibiotic undertreatment were not different after the intervention: ARI-related revisit rates (1.01; 95% CI, 0.98–1.05) and infectious complications (1.01; 95% CI, 0.79–1.28). A potential benefit of improved antibiotic use included a reduction in visits for adverse medication effects (0.82; 95% CI, 0.72–0.94). Furthermore, 90-day CDI events were too sparse to model: preintervention incidence was 0.08% and postintervention incidence was 0.06%. Additionally, 30-day hospitalizations were significantly lower in the postintervention period (0.79; 95% CI, 0.72–0.87). Conclusions: Implementation of the Core Elements was safe and effective and was associated with reduced antibiotic prescribing rates for uncomplicated ARIs, improvements in diagnosis-specific appropriate therapy, visits for adverse antibiotic effects, and 30-day hospitalization rates. No adverse events were noted in ARI-related revisit rates or infectious complications. CDI rates were low and unchanged.
Background: The standardized infection ratio (SIR) is the nationally adopted metric used to track and compare catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs) and central-line– associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs). Despite its widespread use, the SIR may not be suitable for all settings and may not capture all catheter harm. Our objective was to look at the correlation between SIR and device use for CAUTIs and CLABSIs across community hospitals in a regional network. Methods: We compared SIR and SUR (standardized utilization ratio) for CAUTIs and CLABSIs across 43 hospitals in the Duke Infection Control Outreach Network (DICON) using a scatter plot and calculated an R2 value. Hospitals were stratified into large (>70,000 patient days), medium (30,000–70,000 patient days), and small hospitals (<30,000 patient days) based on DICON’s benchmarking for community hospitals. Results: We reviewed 24 small, 11 medium, and 8 large hospitals within DICON. Scatter plots for comparison of SIRs and SURs for CLABSIs and CAUTIs across our network hospitals are shown in Figs. 1 and 2. We detected a weak positive overall correlation between SIR and SUR for CLABSIs (0.33; R2 = 0.11), but no correlation between SIR and SUR for CAUTIs (−0.07; R2 = 0.00). Of 15 hospitals with SUR >1, 7 reported SIR <1 for CLABSIs, whereas 10 of 13 hospitals with SUR >1 reported SIR <1 for CAUTIs. Smaller hospitals showed a better correlation for CLABSI SIR and SUR (0.37) compared to medium and large hospitals (0.19 and 0.22, respectively). Conversely, smaller hospitals showed no correlation between CAUTI SIR and SUR, whereas medium and larger hospitals showed a negative correlation (−0.31 and −0.39, respectively). Conclusions: Our data reveal a weak positive correlation between SIR and SUR for CLABSIs, suggesting that central line use impacts CLABSI SIR to some extent. However, we detected no correlation between SIR and SUR for CAUTIs in smaller hospitals and a negative correlation for medium and large hospitals. Some hospitals with low CAUTI SIRs might actually have higher device use, and vice versa. Therefore, the SIR alone does not adequately reflect preventable harm related to urinary catheters. Public reporting of SIR may incentivize hospitals to focus more on urine culture stewardship rather than reducing device utilization.
Despite recommendations to discontinue prophylactic antibiotics after incision closure or <24 hours after surgery, prophylactic antibiotics are continued after discharge by some clinicians. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and factors associated with postdischarge prophylactic antibiotic use after spinal fusion.
Multicenter retrospective cohort study.
This study included patients aged ≥18 years undergoing spinal fusion or refusion between July 2011 and June 2015 at 3 sites. Patients with an infection during the surgical admission were excluded.
Prophylactic antibiotics were identified at discharge. Factors associated with postdischarge prophylactic antibiotic use were identified using hierarchical generalized linear models.
In total, 8,652 spinal fusion admissions were included. Antibiotics were prescribed at discharge in 289 admissions (3.3%). The most commonly prescribed antibiotics were trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (22.1%), cephalexin (18.8%), and ciprofloxacin (17.1%). Adjusted for study site, significant factors associated with prophylactic discharge antibiotics included American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) class ≥3 (odds ratio [OR], 1.31; 95% CI, 1.00–1.70), lymphoma (OR, 2.57; 95% CI, 1.11–5.98), solid tumor (OR, 3.63; 95% CI, 1.62–8.14), morbid obesity (OR, 1.64; 95% CI, 1.09–2.47), paralysis (OR, 2.38; 95% CI, 1.30–4.37), hematoma/seroma (OR, 2.93; 95% CI, 1.17–7.33), thoracic surgery (OR, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.01–1.93), longer length of stay, and intraoperative antibiotics.
Postdischarge prophylactic antibiotics were uncommon after spinal fusion. Patient and perioperative factors were associated with continuation of prophylactic antibiotics after hospital discharge.
To determine the feasibility and value of developing a regional antibiogram for community hospitals.
Multicenter retrospective analysis of antibiograms.
SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS
A total of 20 community hospitals in central and eastern North Carolina and south central Virginia participated in this study.
We combined antibiogram data from participating hospitals for 13 clinically relevant gram-negative pathogen–antibiotic combinations. From this combined antibiogram, we developed a regional antibiogram based on the mean susceptibilities of the combined data.
We combined a total of 69,778 bacterial isolates across 13 clinically relevant gram-negative pathogen–antibiotic combinations (median for each combination, 1100; range, 174–27,428). Across all pathogen–antibiotic combinations, 69% of local susceptibility rates fell within 1 SD of the regional mean susceptibility rate, and 97% of local susceptibilities fell within 2 SD of the regional mean susceptibility rate. No individual hospital had >1 pathogen–antibiotic combination with a local susceptibility rate >2 SD of the regional mean susceptibility rate. All hospitals’ local susceptibility rates were within 2 SD of the regional mean susceptibility rate for low-prevalence pathogens (<500 isolates cumulative for the region).
Small community hospitals frequently cannot develop an accurate antibiogram due to a paucity of local data. A regional antibiogram is likely to provide clinically useful information to community hospitals for low-prevalence pathogens.
Sound and pressure wave propagation in a granular material is of interest not only for its intrinsic and practical value, but also because it provides a non-intrusive means of probing the state of a granular material. By examining wave speeds and attenuation, insight can be gained into the nature of the contacts between the particles. In the present paper, wave speeds and attenuation rates are first examined for a static granular bed for a variety of system parameters including particle size, composition and the overburden of the material above the measuring transducers. Agitation of the bed is then introduced by shaking the material vertically. This causes the bed to transition from a static granular state to a vibrofluidized state. The dilation of the bed allows for relative particle motion and this has a significant effect on the measured wave speeds and attenuation. Further, the fluid-like characteristics of the agitated bed distort the force-chain framework through which the waves are thought to travel. The consequences of bed consolidation, a natural result of shaking, are also examined.
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