Navua sedge [Cyperus aromaticus (Ridley) Mattf. & Kük.] is an aggressive perennial sedge native to equatorial Africa that has become problematic in many Pacific islands and wet, tropical Queensland, Australia. It has had a significant impact on the livestock-grazing industry, sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) and banana (Musa acuminata Colla) plantations, and various other ecosystems. A laboratory-based research investigation was conducted to understand germination and emergence requirements under various environmental conditions of three geographically varied populations sourced from South Johnstone (SJ), Mackay (M) and Nyleta Creek (NC) in Queensland. Germination was identified to be stimulated by light, with no germination recorded under darkness. Populations SJ and NC had optimal germination at alternating temperatures of 25/15, 30/20, and 35/25 C, whereas population M had optimal germination at 25/15 and 30/20 C. All populations recorded greater than 85% germination at all pH levels tested. Seeds of population SJ were more sensitive to salinity compared with populations M and NC, with SJ showing no germination at 100 mM, whereas populations M and NC had 23% and 9% germination, respectively. An inverse relationship was observed between osmotic potential and germination, with no germination recorded at osmotic potentials below −0.8 MPa in any population, indicating moisture availability is a critical requirement for germination. Exposing seeds to 120 C radiant heat completely inhibited germination in populations M and NC, whereas 3% of population SJ germinated following a 180-s exposure at 120 C. Seedling emergence decreased as planting depth increased. Emergence was greatest for seeds on the soil surface or at 0.5-cm burial depth, consistent with germination being stimulated by light. Knowledge of these biological characteristics of C. aromaticus seed germination will assist in investigation of suitable control actions for this species, particularly in the early stage of its invasion into new areas, and will contribute to significant reduction in the soil seedbank.