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Adults who had non-edematous severe acute malnutrition (SAM) during infancy (i.e., marasmus) have worse glucose tolerance and beta-cell function than survivors of edematous SAM (i.e., kwashiorkor). We hypothesized that wasting and/or stunting in SAM is associated with lower glucose disposal rate (M) and insulin clearance (MCR) in adulthood.
We recruited 40 nondiabetic adult SAM survivors (20 marasmus survivors (MS) and 20 kwashiorkor survivors (KS)) and 13 matched community controls. We performed 150-minute hyperinsulinaemic, euglycaemic clamps to estimate M and MCR. We also measured serum adiponectin, anthropometry, and body composition. Data on wasting (weight-for-height) and stunting (height-for-age) were abstracted from the hospital records.
Children with marasmus had lower weight-for-height z-scores (WHZ) (−3.8 ± 0.9 vs. −2.2 ± 1.4; P < 0.001) and lower height-for-age z-scores (HAZ) (−4.6 ± 1.1 vs. −3.4 ± 1.5; P = 0.0092) than those with kwashiorkor. As adults, mean age (SD) of participants was 27.2 (8.1) years; BMI was 23.6 (5.0) kg/m2. SAM survivors and controls had similar body composition. MS and KS and controls had similar M (9.1 ± 3.2; 8.7 ± 4.6; 6.9 ± 2.5 mg.kg−1.min−1 respectively; P = 0.3) and MCR. WHZ and HAZ were not associated with M, MCR or adiponectin even after adjusting for body composition.
Wasting and stunting during infancy are not associated with insulin sensitivity and insulin clearance in lean, young, adult survivors of SAM. These data are consistent with the finding that glucose intolerance in malnutrition survivors is mostly due to beta-cell dysfunction.
In recent years, a wealth of factors are associated with increased risk of developing non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and NAFLD is now thought to increase the risk of multiple extra-hepatic diseases. The aim of this review is first to focus on the role of ageing and sex as key, poorly understood risk factors in the development and progression of NAFLD. Secondly, we aim to discuss the roles of white adipose tissue (WAT) and intestinal dysfunction, as producers of extra-hepatic factors known to further contribute to the pathogenesis of NAFLD. Finally, we aim to summarise the role of NAFLD as a multi-system disease affecting other organ systems beyond the liver. Both increased age and male sex increase the risk of NAFLD and this may be partly driven by alterations in the distribution and function of WAT. Similarly, changes in gut microbiota composition and intestinal function with ageing and chronic overnutrition are likely to contribute to the development of NAFLD both directly (i.e. by affecting hepatic function) and indirectly via exacerbating WAT dysfunction. Consequently, the presence of NAFLD significantly increases the risk of various extra-hepatic diseases including CVD, type 2 diabetes mellitus, chronic kidney disease and certain extra-hepatic cancers. Thus changes in WAT and intestinal function with ageing and chronic overnutrition contribute to the development of NAFLD – a multi-system disease that subsequently contributes to the development of other chronic cardiometabolic diseases.
Sarcopenic obesity is regarded as a risk factor for the progression and development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Since male sex is a risk factor for NAFLD and skeletal muscle mass markedly varies between the sexes, we examined whether sex influences the association between appendicular skeletal muscle mass to visceral fat area ratio (SVR), that is, an index of skeletal muscle mass combined with abdominal obesity, and the histological severity of NAFLD. The SVR was measured by bioelectrical impedance in a cohort of 613 (M/F = 443/170) Chinese middle-aged individuals with biopsy-proven NAFLD. Multivariable logistic regression and subgroup analyses were used to test the association between SVR and the severity of NAFLD (i.e. non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) or NASH with the presence of any stage of liver fibrosis). NASH was identified by a NAFLD activity score ≥5, with a minimum score of 1 for each of its categories. The presence of fibrosis was classified as having a histological stage ≥1. The SVR was inversely associated with NASH in men (adjusted OR 0·62; 95 % CI 0·42, 0·92, P = 0·017 for NASH, adjusted OR 0·65; 95 % CI 0·43, 0·99, P = 0·043 for NASH with the presence of fibrosis), but not in women (1·47 (95 % CI 0·76, 2·83), P = 0·25 for NASH, and 1·45 (95 % CI 0·74, 2·83), P = 0·28 for NASH with the presence of fibrosis). There was a significant interaction for sex and SVR (Pinteraction = 0·017 for NASH and Pinteraction = 0·033 for NASH with the presence of fibrosis). Our findings show that lower skeletal muscle mass combined with abdominal obesity is strongly associated with the presence of NASH only in men.
The longitudinal relationship between depression and the risk of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is uncertain. We examined: (a) the association between depressive symptoms and incident hepatic steatosis (HS), both with and without liver fibrosis; and (b) the influence of obesity on this association.
A cohort of 142 005 Korean adults with neither HS nor excessive alcohol consumption at baseline were followed for up to 8.9 years. The validated Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression score (CES-D) was assessed at baseline, and subjects were categorised as non-depressed (a CES-D < 8, reference) or depression (CES-D ⩾ 16). HS was diagnosed by ultrasonography. Liver fibrosis was assessed by the fibrosis-4 index (FIB-4). Parametric proportional hazards models were used to estimate the adjusted hazard ratios (aHRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs).
During a median follow-up of 4.0 years, 27 810 people with incident HS and 134 with incident HS plus high FIB-4 were identified. Compared with the non-depressed category, the aHR (95% CIs) for incident HS was 1.24 (1.15–1.34) for CES-D ⩾ 16 among obese individuals, and 1.00 (0.95–1.05) for CES-D ⩾ 16 among non-obese individuals (p for interaction with obesity <0.001). The aHR (95% CIs) for developing HS plus high FIB-4 was 3.41 (1.33–8.74) for CES-D ⩾ 16 among obese individuals, and 1.22 (0.60–2.47) for CES-D ⩾ 16 among non-obese individuals (p for interaction = 0.201).
Depression was associated with an increased risk of incident HS and HS plus high probability of advanced fibrosis, especially among obese individuals.
The FNDC5 gene encodes the fibronectin type III domain-containing protein 5 that is a membrane protein mainly expressed in skeletal muscle, and the FNDC5 rs3480 polymorphism may be associated with liver disease severity in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We investigated the influence of the FNDC5 rs3480 polymorphism on the relationship between sarcopenia and the histological severity of NAFLD. A total of 370 adult individuals with biopsy-proven NAFLD were studied. The association between the key exposure sarcopenia and the outcome liver histological severity was investigated by binary logistic regression. Stratified analyses were undertaken to examine the impact of FNDC5 rs3480 polymorphism on the association between sarcopenia and the severity of NAFLD histology. Patients with sarcopenia had more severe histological grades of steatosis and a higher prevalence of significant fibrosis and definite non-alcoholic steatohepatitis than those without sarcopenia. There was a significant association between sarcopenia and significant fibrosis (adjusted OR 2·79, 95 % CI 1·31, 5·95, P = 0·008), independent of established risk factors and potential confounders. Among patients with sarcopenia, significant fibrosis occurred more frequently in the rs3480 AA genotype carriers than in those carrying the FNDC5 rs3480 G genotype (43·8 v. 17·2 %, P = 0·031). In the association between sarcopenia and liver fibrosis, there was a significant interaction between the FNDC5 genotype and sarcopenia status (P value for interaction = 0·006). Sarcopenia is independently associated with significant liver fibrosis, and the FNDC5 rs3480 G variant influences the association between sarcopenia and liver fibrosis in patients with biopsy-proven NAFLD.
We apply two methods to estimate the 21-cm bispectrum from data taken within the Epoch of Reionisation (EoR) project of the Murchison Widefield Array (MWA). Using data acquired with the Phase II compact array allows a direct bispectrum estimate to be undertaken on the multiple redundantly spaced triangles of antenna tiles, as well as an estimate based on data gridded to the uv-plane. The direct and gridded bispectrum estimators are applied to 21 h of high-band (167–197 MHz; z = 6.2–7.5) data from the 2016 and 2017 observing seasons. Analytic predictions for the bispectrum bias and variance for point-source foregrounds are derived. We compare the output of these approaches, the foreground contribution to the signal, and future prospects for measuring the bispectra with redundant and non-redundant arrays. We find that some triangle configurations yield bispectrum estimates that are consistent with the expected noise level after 10 h, while equilateral configurations are strongly foreground-dominated. Careful choice of triangle configurations may be made to reduce foreground bias that hinders power spectrum estimators, and the 21-cm bispectrum may be accessible in less time than the 21-cm power spectrum for some wave modes, with detections in hundreds of hours.
Currently it is estimated that about 1 billion people globally have non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), a condition in which liver fat exceeds 5 % of liver weight in the absence of significant alcohol intake. Due to the central role of the liver in metabolism, the prevalence of NAFLD is increasing in parallel with the prevalence of obesity, insulin resistance and other risk factors of metabolic diseases. However, the contribution of liver fat to the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus and CVD, relative to other ectopic fat depots and to other risk markers, is unclear. Various studies have suggested that the accumulation of liver fat can be reduced or prevented via dietary changes. However, the amount of liver fat reduction that would be physiologically relevant, and the timeframes and dose–effect relationships for achieving this through different diet-based approaches, are unclear. Also, it is still uncertain whether the changes in liver fat per se or the associated metabolic changes are relevant. Furthermore, the methods available to measure liver fat, or even individual fatty acids, differ in sensitivity and reliability. The present report summarises key messages of presentations from different experts and related discussions from a workshop intended to capture current views and research gaps relating to the points above.
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is now recognised as the hepatic component of metabolic syndrome (MetS). NAFLD is an example of ectopic fat accumulation in a visceral organ that causes organ-specific disease, and affects risk of other related diseases such as type 2 diabetes and CVD. NAFLD is a spectrum of fat-associated liver conditions that can culminate in end stage liver disease, hepatocellular carcinoma and the need for liver transplantation. Simple steatosis, or fatty liver, occurs early in NAFLD and may progress to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, fibrosis and cirrhosis with increased risk of hepatocellular carcinoma. Prevalence estimates for NAFLD range from 2 to 44% in the general population and it has been estimated that NAFLD exists in up to 70% of people with type 2 diabetes. Although many obese people have NAFLD, there are many obese people who do not develop ectopic liver fat. The aim of this review which is based on a presentation at the Royal Society of Medicine, UK in December 2012 is to discuss development of NAFLD, ectopic fat accumulation and insulin resistance. The review will also describe the relationships between NAFLD, type 2 diabetes and CVD.