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During the U.S.-Mexican War (1846–1848), Mexican women published poems that tested the boundaries of conventional definitions of female subjectivity and domesticity. Central to the construction of female authorship was the idea of a collective women's voice, a “lyrical sisterhood” that situated the individual poetic voice within a broader historical tradition and a contemporaneous coalition of women writers. In speaking out about the war, women poets foregrounded their symbolic authority to exalt Mexican resistance to the invader, to decry Mexico's political and military failures, or to measure the horrors of war. In doing so, they self-consciously used gender to blur the distinction between the public and domestic spheres.
The Hierarchical Taxonomy of Psychopathology (HiTOP) has emerged out of the quantitative approach to psychiatric nosology. This approach identifies psychopathology constructs based on patterns of co-variation among signs and symptoms. The initial HiTOP model, which was published in 2017, is based on a large literature that spans decades of research. HiTOP is a living model that undergoes revision as new data become available. Here we discuss advantages and practical considerations of using this system in psychiatric practice and research. We especially highlight limitations of HiTOP and ongoing efforts to address them. We describe differences and similarities between HiTOP and existing diagnostic systems. Next, we review the types of evidence that informed development of HiTOP, including populations in which it has been studied and data on its validity. The paper also describes how HiTOP can facilitate research on genetic and environmental causes of psychopathology as well as the search for neurobiologic mechanisms and novel treatments. Furthermore, we consider implications for public health programs and prevention of mental disorders. We also review data on clinical utility and illustrate clinical application of HiTOP. Importantly, the model is based on measures and practices that are already used widely in clinical settings. HiTOP offers a way to organize and formalize these techniques. This model already can contribute to progress in psychiatry and complement traditional nosologies. Moreover, HiTOP seeks to facilitate research on linkages between phenotypes and biological processes, which may enable construction of a system that encompasses both biomarkers and precise clinical description.
Categorical rubrics are the prevailing approach to personality disorder (PD) assessment and diagnosis. Diagnostic manuals, funding bodies, and training programs tend to follow this categorical model. Yet there is now abundant evidence that PD categories are impeding research progress on personality pathology. This chapter describes an emerging dimensional perspective on personality problems, the Hierarchical Taxonomy of Psychopathology (HiTOP). The HiTOP framework encapsulates factor analytically derived higher- and lower-order dimensions of personality pathology, ranging from an overarching general factor of psychopathology at the hierarchy’s apex to homogeneous maladaptive personality traits and acute symptoms at the base. This multi-level system bypasses aspects of categorical PD diagnoses that researchers find problematic (e.g., comorbidity, within-diagnosis heterogeneity, and insufficient coverage of personality problems encountered in the clinic). HiTOP has the potential to renew field-wide interest in PD and streamline social, psychological, and biological research on personality pathology.
Right cerebellar-left frontal (RC-LF) white matter integrity (WMI) has been associated with working memory. However, prior studies have employed measures of working memory that include processing speed and attention. We examined the relationships between the RC-LF WMI and processing speed, attention, and working memory to clarify the relationship of RC-LF WMI with a specific cognitive function. Right superior longitudinal fasciculus II (SLF II) WMI and visual attention were included as a negative control tract and task to demonstrate a double dissociation.
Adult survivors of childhood brain tumors [n = 29, age: M = 22 years (SD = 5), 45% female] and demographically matched controls were recruited (n = 29). Tests of auditory attention span, working memory, and visual attention served as cognitive measures. Participants completed a 3-T MRI diffusion-weighted imaging scan. Fractional anisotropy (FA) and radial diffusivity (RD) served as WMI measures. Partial correlations between WMI and cognitive scores included controlling for type of treatment.
A correlational double dissociation was found. RC-LF WMI was associated with auditory attention (FA: r = .42, p = .03; RD: r = −.50, p = .01) and was not associated with visual attention (FA: r = −.11, p = .59; RD: r = −.11, p = .57). SLF II FA WMI was associated with visual attention (FA: r = .44, p = .02; RD: r = −.17, p = .40) and was not associated with auditory attention (FA: r = .24, p = .22; RD: r = −.10, p = .62).
The results show that RC-LF WMI is associated with auditory attention span rather than working memory per se and provides evidence for a specificity based on the correlational double dissociation.
Diagnosis and classification for mental disorder are in flux. This transition has downstream consequences on the nature of clinical assessment in research and treatment settings. We begin this chapter by describing the prevailing categorical rubrics, which are the predominant guide to clinical assessment worldwide. These systems, despite their popularity, suffer from serious defects, which have prompted the development of alternate frameworks for conceptualization and assessment of psychopathology. We focus the remainder of the chapter on two prominent contenders to supplement, and perhaps eventually supplant, traditional categorical models. The Hierarchical Taxonomy of Psychopathology is an empirically derived system of the phenotypic dimensions of psychopathology and the Research Domain Criteria represent a biologically oriented approach to understanding risk processes implicated in mental disorder. We describe the promise and challenges facing these two emerging systems, and we speculate about how they will shape the future of clinical assessment.
This study investigated the role of sequential processing in spoken language outcomes for children who are deaf or hard of hearing (DHH), ages 5;3–11;4, by comparing them to children with typical hearing (TH), ages 6;3–9;7, on sequential learning and memory tasks involving easily nameable and difficult-to-name visual stimuli. Children who are DHH performed more poorly on easily nameable sequencing tasks, which positively predicted receptive vocabulary scores. Results suggest sequential learning and memory may underlie delayed language skills of many children who are DHH. Implications for language development in children who are DHH are discussed.
Previous research supports gene–environment interactions for polymorphisms in the corticotropin hormone receptor 1 gene (CRHR1) and the serotonin transporter gene linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) in predicting depression, but it has rarely considered genetic influences on stress sensitization processes, whereby early adversities (EA) increase depressive reactivity to proximal stressors later in life. The current study tested a gene–environment–environment interaction (G × E × E; specifically, gene–EA–proximal stress interaction) model of depression in a 20-year longitudinal study. Participants were assessed prospectively for EA up to age 5 and recent chronic stress and depressive symptoms at age 20 and genotyped for CRHR1 single nucleotide polymorphism rs110402 and 5-HTTLPR. EA predicted stronger associations between recent chronic stress and depression, and the effect was moderated by genes. CRHR1 A alleles and 5-HTTLPR short alleles were associated with greater stress sensitization (i.e., greater depressive reactivity to chronic stress for those also exposed to high levels of EA). The results are consistent with the notion that EA exposure results in neurobiological and cognitive–emotional consequences (e.g., altered hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis functioning), leading to emotional distress in the face of recent stressors among those with certain genetic characteristics, although further research is needed to explore explanatory mechanisms.
We used measurements of radar-detected stratigraphy, surface ice-flow velocities and accumulation rates to investigate relationships between local valley-glacier and regional ice-sheet dynamics in and around the Schmidt Hills, Pensacola Mountains, Antarctica. Ground-penetrating radar profiles were collected perpendicular to the long axis of the Schmidt Hills and the margin of Foundation Ice Stream (FIS). Within the valley confines, the glacier consists of blue ice, and profiles show internal stratigraphy dipping steeply toward the nunataks and truncated at the present-day ablation surface. Below the valley confines, the blue ice is overlain by firn. Data show that upward-progressing overlap of actively accumulating firn onto valley-glacier ice is slightly less than ice flow out of the valleys over the past ∼1200 years. The apparent slightly negative mass balance (-0.25 cm a-1) suggests that ice-margin elevations in the Schmidt Hills may have lowered over this time period, even without a change in the surface elevation of FIS. Results suggest that (1) mass-balance gradients between local valley glaciers and regional ice sheets should be considered when using local information to estimate regional ice surface elevation changes; and (2) interpretation of shallow ice structures imaged with radar can provide information about local ice elevation changes and stability.
Christopher Martin, Dept. of Aerospace Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL,
Bruce A. Conway, Dept. of Aerospace Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL
The three-body system has been of interest to mathematicians and scientists for well over a century dating back to Poincaré. Much of the interest in recent years has focused on using the interesting dynamics present around libration points to create trajectories that can travel vast distances around the solar system for almost no fuel expenditure traversing the so-called “Interplanetary Super Highway” (IPS). It has also been proposed to use Lagrange points as staging bases for more ambitious missions.
Lagrange points are equilibrium points of the three-body system that describes the motion of a massless particle in the presence of two massive primaries in a reference frame that rotates with the primaries. There are five Lagrange points (labeled L1,…,L5), the three collinear points along the line of the two primaries, and the two equilateral points that form an equilateral triangle with the two primaries. It is the collinear points that are of the most interest and in particular the L1 point between the two primaries and the L2 point on the far side of the smaller primary. Since Poincaré, there has been much work on finding periodic solutions to the three-body problem. Early work was confined to analytic studies that are restricted to approximations as there exists no closed form analytical solution to the three-body system equations of motion.
Cognitive developmental disorders cannot be properly understood without due attention to the developmental process, and we commend the authors’simulations in this regard. We note the contribution of these simulations to the nascent field of connectionist modeling of developmental disorders and outline a set of criteria for assessing individual models in the hope of furthering future modeling efforts.
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