Currently, tardive dyskinesia (TD) remains an important clinical problem. The average prevalence is estimated at 30%. The appearance of antipsychotics has opened new paths. The extrapyramidal profile of these molecules is more favorable than that of conventional neuroleptics. In order to assess their prophylactic as well as curative potential, we reviewed the literature concerning four of these atypical antipsychotics: clozapine, risperidone olanzapine and amisulpride. Clozapine seems to induce fewer cases of TD than the conventional neuroleptics, and has a specific therapeutic effect. However, the risk of agranulocytosis reduces the possibility of utilisation. Risperidone appears to be an effective therapy, but several authors report cases of TD during treatment. Furthermore, larger studies and longer follow-ups are necessary to confirm the efficiency of olanzapine and amisulpride. Further studies and observations are still necessary before drawing any conclusion for these new atypical antipsychotic actions. They are doubtlessly promising, but we cannot ignore the notion of risk–benefit; regular monitoring and listening to the subjective experience of the patients must remain uppermost in the choice of therapy.